Ancient Egypt History - The Complete History

Historicalfacts.net: Ancient Egypt History - There were some important cultures which grew in Egypt in this period: Badari, Amratian or Naqada I, Gerzeh or Naqada II and Naqada III. Although the Tasian culture followed the Badari but the similarities among the two cultures was so much that they are taken under one period. Blacktop-ware type of pottery was the speciality of the Badari. The El-Amra site which is just 120 km south from Badariis where the Amratian culture gets its name from. Although the blacktop pottery have been found a new type of pottery which is referred to as white cross line ware have also been discovered.

There were many developments in the Amratian period such as there were mud-brick buildings, cosmetic palettes that have a very simple craftsmanship have also been found. The foundation of dynastic period in Egypt was laid in the Gerzean culture which was Naqada II. Gerzean pottery was painted red with pictures of ships, animals or people along with some geometric shapes which usually resembled the animals. The handles of the pottery were now wavy and with time they became ornamental. There have evidence found which indicate that the culture was influenced by foreign cultures such as Mesopotamian, Arabian and other civilizations.

The Naqada III period of Egypt is identical to the time when Egypt was unified. It is in this period that the hieroglyphics was first developed. There were other firsts too such as the first royal cemeteries, first serekhs which were vignettes that comprised of a plan of the royal courtyard and a rough look of the palace and first irrigation. In 3200 BC there were two Pharaohdoms establishe done was Upper Egypt and the other was lower Egypt. There is an on-going debate on who united both upper and lower Egypt, Menes or Narmer. There is more historical evidence on Narmer having united Egypt, however archaeologists and specialists have their own theories to prove that Menes was the first pharaoh to have united upper and lower Egypt.

Ancient Egypt History - Early Dynastic Period

This period follows immediately after the upper and lower Egypt were unified. Usually the 1st and 2nd dynasties are come under this period. When the 1st dynasty came into existence then Memphis was made the capital of Egypt. Abydos was an important centre for religion. Egypt was now ruled by a Pharaoh who was also considered equivalent to god. Proper administration was established throughout and governors were appointed to look after the many villages. With the unification of upper and lower Egypt even the towns and societies in these regions underwent a process of unification. Narmer has been shown on the palette where he is seen wearing double crown. The crown depicts papyrus reed which represents the lower Egypt and lotus flower which is a symbol of Upper Egypt.
Ancient Egypt History
Ancient Egypt History - The Complete History

Narmer also appears first on the pharaohs list of Den and Qa’a. The wealthy people of Egypt wanted something special for those who departed. They constructed mastabas which were flat, rectangular structures sloping inwards made of mud-bricks. Mastabas were actually the basis for better buildings like the step pyramids. Unification of upper and lower Egypt had happened in this period, Egypt was already unified economically and culturally.

However this political unification helped in developing trade and in running Egypt in a more civilized and planned way. Egyptian writing also was expanded more and now included about 200 ideograms and phonograms. There is a dispute between Narmer and Menes. Some of them say Menes and Narmer were same but some say that they were different. Narmer has many archaeological proofs about his existenceand he being the first Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty. Old Pharaohdom period in which the 3rd to the 6th dynasties of Egypt flourished is commonly referred to as the period of Old Pharaohdom in Egypt. The Old Pharaohdom was an important phase for the Egyptians. The capital was still Memphis which is a modern name of Ineb-Hedg.

What marks a differentiation among the two periods is the distinct architecture from both the periods. The pharaoh was a god for its subjects and had services and wealth of its people at his beck and call. Pharaoh Djoser was the first Pharaoh of the Old Pharaohdom of the 4th dynasty and ruled between 2691 and 2625 BC roughly. The step pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara is a famous remaining from his time. Imhotep was an important person from the court of Pharaoh Djoser. He was a chancellor to the pharaoh and high priest of sun god Ra at Heliopolis.

Even though Imhotep was a commoner he was given a divine status after he died. It was the period of the 4th dynasty that all the rulers of the ancient Egyptian states were asked to work in the tax collections or as governors for the Pharaoh. 4th dynasty also saw much development and Pharaoh Sneferu ordered to build three pyramids. The building technique of pyramids was not as good until the pyramid of Giza was built by Khufu who was the son of Sneferu.

Khufu ruled from 2589-2566 BC. After his death, his first successor Djedefra ruled from 2566 to 2558 BC and was then succeeded by his brother Khafra whose reign was from 2558 to 2532 BC. Khafra built the second largest pyramid and the Sphinx at Giza. Pharaoh Menkaure from this dynasty who was also the son of Khafrahas been known to have constructed the smallest pyramid in Giza. Shepseskaf and Djedefptah were the Pharaohs who followed him. Userkaf was the first Pharaoh of 5th dynasty and the period is known for being a time when the sun god Ra had very high importance in the hearts of the Egyptians.

Sun temples were constructed more than pyramids. Unas was the last Pharaoh of this dynasty and one of theearliest pharaohs who has inscriptions done on his pyramid. The Egyptians traded in myrrh, ebony, frankincense, copper, gold and other metals. They were inspired to build ships so they could navigate the sea. The ships in the ancient times were bound together with ropes and nothing else. There were no pegs, nails or metal fasteners. When the time came for the 6th Dynasty the powero f the Pharaohs seem to have weakened for the governors gained more power, there were no more royal families heading these states. The local dynasties had taken over them.

In the reign of Pepi II from 2278 to 2184 BC which was towards the end of the 6th dynasty, there was a state of chaos in Egypt. However the situation worsened only after some of his heirs had ruled Egypt. There was a period of drought the cause of which is unknown, but there were no floods in Nile from 2200 to 2150 BC. There was a period of famine and friction. There are many life size sculptures that have been excavated from the Old Pharaohdom period that are made of copper, wood and stone. Intricate designs of plants, creepers, animals and even sceneries have been carefully carved and painted on the walls of tombs and temples. The main aim of the artists of these times was to centre their effort on depicting life after death.

Ancient Egypt History - First Intermediate Period

This period lasted for 125 years and is also referred to as the Dark Age in ancient history of Egypt. Dynasties from 7th to 10th along with a part of 11th dynasty are covered in this period. Chaos and disorder in Egypt led to the downfall of Old Pharaohdom. The main reason which for which the downfall of Old Pharaohdom is known for is the elongated rule of Pepi II. He outlived many of his heirs which caused tension in the royal family when it came to succession of the throne. The rise of provincial nomarchs was another cause. Because the families of a Nomarch did not let go of the position Pharaoh. Finally famine in Egypt swept the Old Pharaohdom’s existence.

Ancient Egypt History - 7th and 8th Dynasties at Memphis

There is very less information about the 7th and 8th dynasties of Egypt. A priest and historian Manetho from the Ptloemaicera mentions about 70 pharaohs ruling for 70 days. However, this may just be an overemphasis about how disorganised the Pharaohs were while they ruled. The 7th dynasty could also have been an oligarchy which comprised of many officials who desired to gain control of the country. The eight dynasty Pharaohs claimed that they were the descendants of the 6th dynasty and ruled Memphis.

There is hardly any architectural and textual evidence that could throw light on these periods. However there are some artefacts and scarabs that have been recognized to belong to Pharaoh Neferkare II. A small pyramid constructed by the Pharaoh of 8th dynasty, Pharaoh Ibi has been found at Saqqara. There are many Pharaohs from these two dynasties whose positions are not known clearly. Heracleopolitan Pharaohs in lower Egypt who came into power sometime when the 7th and 8th dynasty Pharaohs were ruling. These Pharaohs make up the 9th and the tenth dynasties and every dynasty had nineteen rulers.

These rulers had taken over the weak rulers of Memphis and created the 9th dynasty. Akhtoy or Akhtoes, who was the founder of the 9th dynasty, has been identified as a cruel and violent ruler in Manetho’s writings. Akhtoy could possibly be the ruler Wahkare Khety I. He was known to have harmed the people of Egypt had become mad and was ultimately killed by a crocodile. This definitely is not a story because Wahkare’s name is listed in the Turin Canon, the list of Egyptian pharaohs.

Wahkhare Khety I was succeeded by Meryibre Khety II. There is not much text that has been found against him but there are some artefacts that bear his name which have been found. His successor Khety III seemed to have bought some peace in Egypt, but the rulers of 9th and the tenth dynasties were not as significant and powerful as the Pharaohs of the Old Pharaohdom.

During the reign of the 9th and 10th dynasty Pharaohs, Nomarchs in the Asyut had become quite powerful. Asyut or Siut was a powerful province and these Nomarchs had very close relations with the Heracleopolitan Pharaohs. There are inscriptions found on their tombs which that prove their powerful existence. These inscriptions also say that these Nomarchs used to raise cattle, had dug canals, reduce the taxes, had rich harvests and also maintained fleet and army. The province of Suit was just like a cushion between the Southern and Northern Pharaohs and the Suit Nomarchs used to face the attacks from the Theban Pharaohs. Theban Pharaohs were the Pharaohs over the upper Egypt. They formed the 11th and 12th dynasties of Egypt. He is the one who founded the 11th dynasty. His name comes up in the chapel of royal ancestors which has been erected at Karnak.

Intef II and III attacked the north and captured Abydos and moved into middle Egypt and against the Heracleopolitan Pharaohs. The last three Pharaohs of the first intermediate period became the first three Pharaohs of the 11th dynasty. The Pharaohs that followed were all Mentuhotep. Mentuhotep II referred to as Nebhepetra, was the one who defeated the Heracleopolitan Pharaohs in 2033 BC and unified Egypt. The defeat of the Heracleopolitan pharaoh bought forth the middle Pharaohdom period in Egypt.

The Ipuwer Papyrus is an important literary piece which refers to this period and mentions about the decline in the international relations and hardships in Egypt at this time. The pharaohs of Memphis held on to their traditional art and culture but the quality of their art had declined. The wooden coffins used for burial were more elaborate and the coffins were painted in their interior with spells and maps designed for the dead with a thought to be used in their afterlife. The Thebans brought more provincial style of art but their style was not refined. However the artisans used bright colours in their paintings and the human figure was distorted by them. The royals had rock cut tombs for them which were not decorated because there were hardly any skilled artists around in their period.

Ancient Egypt History - Middle Pharaohdom of Egypt

This was the period of reunification in Egypt between 2050 BC and 1800 BC. It started with Mentuhotep II who belonged to the 11th dynasty, defeating the last Heracleopolitan Pharaoh and the period ended with the 12th dynasty. There are some scholars who also add thirteenth dynasty which means the middle Pharaohdom would then end on 1650 BC. There are others who consider the period till Merneferre Ay on 1700 BC. This was the last Pharaoh of this dynasty to be indicated in upper and lower Egypt.

Ancient Egypt History - Reunification of Egypt and the 11th Dynasty

Mentuhotep II defeated the Heracleopolitan Pharaoh of the tenth dynasty and took over the throne in 2055 BC. Establishing the period of the 11th dynasty in the Memphis area, also thus reuniting Egypt once more. Menuhotep is also referred to as the founder of middle Pharaohdom. The lost supremacy was restored to Egypt. He wore the head-dress of Amun and Min and rules for 51 years passing his throne to his son Menuhotep III. Menuhotep III strengthened the Theban rule on Egypt and build many forts in the eastern delta area so that Egypt would be safe from threats which were rising from Asia.

The last pharaoh of the 11th dynasty seems to be Mentuhotep IV. But this name has been omitted in the list of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Turin Papyrus speaks of a period of seven years in Egypt when there were no Pharaohs. However Wadi Hammamat, a site which carries carvings and graffiti which date from early Egyptian dynasties to modern times, speaks of his expeditions to the Red Sea. Inscriptions at Ain Sukhna and Wadi el-Hudi also speak of his expeditions.

Even though Mentuhotep IV is not mentioned in the list of Pharaohs, there is a clear mention of a big expedition while he reigned. His Vizier Amenemhat I was also a part of an expedition. Amenemhat I is also known to be the founder of 12th dynasty. Since Mentuhotep’s name is absent from the list of Pharaohs, many researchers say that his Vizier Amenemhet I took over his throne. There also exists some evidence about a civil war that happened when the 11th dynasty was coming to an end. Whatever, the reason may be it is definite that Amenemhet I was not of royal birth.

Ancient Egypt History - 12th Dynasty

All the Pharaohs of this dynasty kept armies. The founder of the 12th dynasty, AmenemhetI, further fortified between Egypt and Asia. He also built a new capital in the north and named it "Amenemhat ItjTawy" which translates as Amenemhet, Seisure of two lands. The exact location of this capital of Egypt is not known but it may be near the present day of el-Lisht. Irrespective of his power and authority he did not have the same command as the Pharaoh’s of Old Kingdom. The Nomarchs has become powerful from the first intermediate period and their posts were taken over by their sons.

Amenemhat I to get a hold on Egypt changed the Borders of Nomes in Egypt, had the lands registered and when there was a position of a Nomarch empty he appointed one directly. However, he always kept the Nomarchs happy because he needed their support to rule Egypt. There was a feudal organization in Egypt. Amenemhat I made his son Senusret I his coregent. A coregent is a situation when the monarchical position is held by two or more people. This practice would be done by more Pharaohs in the next two periods. Amenemhat I became a victim of a conspiracy and was murdered while he was in his 30th year of rule.

Senusret was not home when his father was murdered and was in a campaign against the Libyan invaders and rushed back to Itjtaway to prevent the conspirers from usurping the throne. Like his father, he continued to appoint Nomarchs directly and built cult centres all over Egypt and weakened the growing power of local priests. He took over Nubia and Oases and made it a part of Egypt. He also made contacts with Syrio-Palestine and went upto Ugarit. Sensuret appointed his son Amenemhat II as his coregent during his 43rd year of rule and died in his 46th year of reign.

Amenemhat II reigned peacefully though his genut or daybook which are preserved on the walls of the Tod and Memphis temples speak of peace treaties with Syrio-Palestinian cities and fight with the others. Unlike his grandfather and father, Amenemhat II left the Nomarch positions to be hereditary once again. In his 33rd year of reign, he made his son Sensuret II the coregent. Sensuret II concentrated on developing Egypt domestically such as the irrigation system in Faiyum. This turned Faiyum into a productive land. Sensuret II’s pyramid can be found at the site of el-Lahun. He ruled for fifteen years. The proof of which is the many constructions which he started but were left incomplete. He was succeeded by his son Sensuret III.

Ancient Egypt History - Powerful Period of Middle Kingdom

Sensuret III was a field king and was seen campaigning quite often. He had many victories in his bucket and also built many forts in entire Egypt. His campaigns were mostly against Nubia and the boundary was built to demarcate the unconquered lands of Nubia from Egypt. He appointed officers on these forts and had them send regular reports on the happenings in the borders. They would hand over the report to Medjai who were a part of the parliamentary police force of Egypt and would give these reports to the king. They were also protectors of important areas and regions that had value such as tombs and palaces. They were elite group of warriors who the king kept close.

A soldier from the army of Sensuret III has recorded a campaign to Palestine probably against Shechem but the flow of Nile did not support their ships and they had to turn back. This campaign against Palestine seems to be the only one in the literature of middle Kingdom. Sensuret III’s administrative reforms are known to be quite impressive. Egypt was divided into administrative zones and every zone was looked after by a reporter, second reporter and a council which comprised of officials. The Nomarchs were not powerful during this time and the central government was more powerful under Sensuret III’s rule.

Sensuret III was so powerful and tactiful in his reign that he suppressed the power of these Nomarchs without taking any direct action against them. He was worshipped by the Egyptian people in Nubia who looked up to him as a patron God. The number of years Sensuret III ruled is not known exactly but his son Amenemhat III is known to have taken over the throne after 19 years of his rule. But in the archaeological remains of his mortuary temple shows 39 years which means that he continued to reign as a coregent for a long time along with his son.

Egypt’s prosperity soared high in Amenemhet III’s rule. Mining camps have been found in Sinai which show that there were more than 2,000 workers working there. Amenemhat III followed his father’s foot steps and fortified the defences in Nubia. He ruled for 45 years and was succeeded by his son Amenemhat IV who ruled for about 9 years. But his rule was not even near to how his father and grandfather ruled. The dynasty began declining in his rule. Although there are some records of crop failures in the end of Amenemhat III’s rule which may also have been the cause for the decline of this dynasty.

Another cause for the decline was that Amenemhat III ruled for too long which caused problems in succession. Amenemhet IV did not leave back any male heir and was then succeeded by his sister Sobekneferu. She is the first female Pharaoh to have been historically attested. She ruled for just four years and died without leaving any heirs. With her death, the 12th dynasty also came to an end, giving way to the second intermediate period and a weak 13th dynasty.

Ancient Egypt History - Second Intermediate Period

The second intermediate period was a time when Egypt once was face to face with chaos. Queen Sobekneferu left no heir hence and with her death also ended the 12th dynasty. The 13th dynasty ruled from Itjtawy. The kings of this dynasty were unable to keep the territories of Egypt under their control and slowly gave way to 14th dynasty who were a family from Avaris. The 15th dynasty lasted from 1650 BC to 1550 BC and were known as Hyksos. This dynasty was a mix of Greek and Western Asia who had settled down in the Nile Delta not much before 1650 BC. They ruled from Avaris and preferred to stay in northern parts of Egypt as they belonged to North-East.

The order of kings who ruled in this dynasty is not known clearly but according to the Turin List there were six kings from this dynasty, Khamudi was the last. The 16th dynasty ruled the Theban region in upper Egypt for 70 years. The 15th and the 16th dynasties were always fighting each other and this is why the rule of 16th dynasty did not last for long. Memphis and Itjtawy were taken over by Hyksos. The native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes broke away from Itjtawy and started a new 17th dynasty.

The rulers from this dynasty returned back the Theban temples to its lost glory. Seqenenre Tao and Kamose were the last two kings of this dynasty and have also been credited with defeating the Hyksos. In 1550 BC the 18th dynasty was formed and the new Kingdom of Egypt began with Ahmose I, the first Pharaoh finally driving the Hyksos out from Egypt. Egypt was finally under the control of the Egyptians.

Ancient Egypt History - New Kingdom: The Period Covered the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties

Archaeological evidences say that the period of New Kingdom was between 1570 BC and 1544 BC. This period is when Egypt prospered and its power was in its peak. In the rule of the 19th and 20th dynasties, the period is referred to as the Rasmesside period, named after eleven Pharaoh’s who took the name Ramesses I, the founder of the 19th dynasty. Thutmose I and his grandson Thutmose III extended the boundaries of Egypt. The Pharaohs of New Kingdom were builders and they campaigned to promote god Amun, a cult that was based in Karnak.

The fifth Pharaoh of the New Kingdom was a female and the second one to be historically confirmed. Her name was Hatsheput and came to the throne in the year 1478 BC. She came to rule the throne with Thutmose III who at that time was just about 2 years old. She restored trade and promoted peace in Egypt. Her reign was quite peaceful and Egypt prospered under her 22 years of reign because of the trade routes she had restored. In 1350 BC when Amenhotep IV came to rule Egypt there was a series of chaotic reforms that the nation was going through. He tried to suppress the power of the priests of Amun in Thebes as he thought they were bad and he asked the people to worship the sun god, Aten, whose importance was lost long back.

He also moved the capital to Akhetaten. However, after his death, the new Pharaohs went back to their old traditions and the Theban priests regained their power once again. Ramesses III is considered as the last great Pharaoh of the 20th dynasty and in his reign, The Sea People invaded Egypt. But Ramesses III and his army defeated them in two battles. One of which was fought on land and the other on sea. There were more wars that Egypt had to face and all these wars was draining the treasure of Egypt. Ramesses III was followed by weak Pharaoh’s and by the time Ramesses XI came on the throne that even when he was on the throne Smendes began taking control of lower Egypt. Smendes founded the 21st dynasty at Tanis.

Ancient Egypt History - Third Intermediate Period

The death of Ramesses XI marked the end of the 20th dynasty and the New Kingdom. This was a time of political instability and decline. The priests of Thebes had become quite powerful. Although Smendes I who found the 21st dynasty was ruling from Tanis his power was only limited to lower Egypt. The high priests of Amun at Thebes had become quite powerful. Although their names haven’t been officially as kings but upper and middle Egypt was under their control. This was because priests and Pharaohs belonged to the same family.

Shoshenq I founded the 22nd dynasty in 945 BC, Egypt was much stable under him but this lasted only for 100 years. Egypt was divided into two when Osorkon II came to rule. Middle and upper Egypt was controlled by Takelot II and Osorkon III and lower Egypt was with Shoshenq III who belonged to the 22nd dynasty. These two divisions were always at war which ended after 39 years and with this war was founded the 23rd dynasty which did not last long and ended with Rudamun. The Pharaohs of 24th dynasty ruled for a very short time. They had their capital at Sais and the first Pharaoh of this dynasty was Tefnakht I who came on throne in 732 BC. Piye was the one to establish the 25th dynasty and his sons Shebitku and Taharqa united the Nile valley empire just like it was in the New Kingdom.

The Pharaohs of this dynasty were quite spiritual and were all buried in Napata. The Napatan dynasty led to the Kingdom of Kush which prospered in Meroe and Napata till the 2nd century. Assyria was gaining power during this time and they had more weapons than the Egyptians who did have wealth and was big in size. In 664 BC, the Assyrians sacked Memphis and Thebes. Lower Egypt was ruled by 26th dynasty who were client kings that were established by the Assyrians. Psamtik I captured Thebes in 656 BC and ruled both upper and lower Egypt. There was stability in the land and he ruled from Sais.

Between 610 BC and 525 BC there were four more kings who ruled the lands in peace. However there was a new power which was slowly rising - Persians. Egypt was helpless in front of their army and Psamtik III was captured and executed. Persian King Cambyses took the title of Pharaoh.

Ancient Egypt History - Late Period

Some of the last kings of the 26th dynasty up tothe 31st dynasty are included in the Late Period. The Brooklyn Papyrus is one of the important contributions in this period. This medical papyrus comprises of a systematic explanation of snakes and also the medicine for the snakebites. Also included is treatment for scorpion and spider bites. The 27th dynasty comprised of eight Pharaohs. Amyrtaeus was the only Pharaohs of the 28th dynasty and he rebelled against the Persians. Mendes was the pharaoh who began the 29th dynasty and it ended in the 380 BC.

Three pharaohs ruled the 30th dynasty till the 343rd BC and the Persians re-occupied Egypt. The 31st dynasty had four Pharaohs who ruled Egypt and all of them were Persians. The last ruler in this period was Darius III and his rule ended in 332 BC.

Ancient Egypt History - Ptolemaic Period

Alexander the Great invaded Egypt in 332 BC. The Persians couldn’t stop him and the Egyptians welcomed his presence. The Oracle of Amun at the Oasis of Siwa said that he was the son of Amun. Although he showed respect towards the religion of Egyptians, the Macedonians were appointed in high posts. He found a Greek city Alexandria and made it the capital. He left Egypt with Cleomenes on the throne and moved towards Phoenicia in 331 BC, Alexander never returned back to Egypt.

The time when Greeks ruled in Egypt is known as the Ptolemaic Period. Hellenistic culture mixed with the Egyptians yet the Egyptians never accepted them, there were revolts in the nation and the situation became so worse in some time that Rome had to send armies to secure the country. Some of the Pharaoh’s who ruled in this period were Ptolemy I to XIII, Cleopatra VII who is known for the beauty and shrewd nature. Cleopatra VII or Cleopatra as most people address her was the last ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt. With her death, the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt came to an end. Cleopatra died in 30 BC.

Ancient Egypt History - Roman Period

After the death of Cleopatra, Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Rome was dependant on Egypt for grains. Alexandria was an important center of trade and the Romans loved exotic luxuries. The Romans proved to be more aggressive towards the Egyptians compared to the Greeks but worship of gods and the tradition of mummification continued to happen. The Roman emperors also portrayed themselves as pharaohs, however it was not as much as the Ptolemies did. In the middle of the first century AD Christianity began to take roots. Those who converted were executed.

Still Christianity seemed to stand strong and in 391 AD Theodosius I who was a Christian emperor banned all pagan rites and shut down the temples. Alexandria saw several riots and Egypt’s native religion began to decline. The language of the Egyptians was still alive but the culture of reading Hieroglyphic writing was disappearing. The priests and priestesses of Egyptian temples vanished. The temples were made into churches and many of them were left to diminish in the deserts.

Kings and Pharaohs and Emperors all ruled Egypt and even after many ups and downs in Egypt it continued to be an important centre for the Roman empire as they fulfilled the agricultural needs of Rome. What began with small settlements in the River Nile grew into an empire so vast whose history can never be forgotten. Every dynasty and every Pharaoh had something to contribute to the exciting history of the Egyptians. Their intelligence was unbelievable and their knowledge about things seems to be unnatural.

How do you think a pyramid was built? This seems to be possible with the techniques of today but back then there was nothing automatic no machines yet. They made buildings so strong that they outlive centuries and stand high and strong so we can admire their beauty. Egypt has had a long history - sometimes peace and sometimes war yet the grandeur of the Pharaohs and the magnificence of the city cannot be forgotten.

Egypt is one of the most wondrous countries that Africa has. With its capital at Cairo, Egypt is one of the important centres of history, culture and traditions. Egypt is home to some of the most beautiful historical places and thousands of tourists flock here to admire what remains from the ancient past.

Ancient Egypt History - The Complete History