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The History of Mexico

The History of Mexico

Historicalfacts.net: The History of Mexico - The Mayas Mesoamerica is the name of old Mexico, as per the historians. 200.000 inhabitants get settled here for the first time in this huge land mass. These indigenous tribes were known as the Mayans who ruled the place for more than 6 centuries. Since 280 CE to all until 900 CE, the rule belonged to the Mayans. This age is called as the classical period. The Mayan empire clear trade routes were formed in the demographics with each city having its own temple, pyramids, plazas, canals, ball courts, palaces and so forth.

The History of Mexico - The Mayan Creation Myth

One of the most important crops that were cultivated locally among the so many other crops is the squash and  the beans. Food crop that belonged to the Mayans was maize. Water dwelling serpents tried almost three times to create the human beings but ended up in failure for the first two attempts. Finally they succeeded in creating the Mayans. This is the myth of the Mayans. The Mayan civilization is incomparable to many other civilizations of the past. They had their own ball courts, recreational activities, and the sports clubs, too.
The History of Mexico
The History of Mexico

Ollama is one of the games that they played. As the rings were of different sizes, the complexity of the game is higher when there are changes made in the venues of Mesoamerica. Social hierarchy nobles belong to the top of the social table. They had the power to call the shots and get the lower segments involved in what they want to be. Secret societies were in operation to guide the people and govern their activities all the while. The religion was given due priority and led them towards other achievements. The Decline of the Mayans craft populations, and the artisans as well as the officials only led the life of the middle class. Other than that the social set up either had the working class or the third segments in excessive amounts or the monarchies in the top. That led to the decline of the Mayans as the bottom level men and women started to rebel against the minority nobles in a short span of time.

The History of Mexico - The Decline of the Mayans

While there were more theories that were not giving enough evidences towards the declined of the Mayans, the real convincing theory is the heavy pressure on the lower class. Hurricane could have been a reason otherwise too. The Mayan empire did not had the biggest of the solutions in hand to face for any kind of the catastrophic destructions like the plague, flood, epidemics, draught, warfare, famine and so forth.

Finally, the last of the nomadic groups that unfiltered into the Mesoamerica was the Aztecs. They beloved that they had closer relations with god. They might have come from Texas, or the present Oklahoma. The up starts as soon as they arrived in the Mexico region, they gained enough reputation in the domicile as one of the fittest group of warriors. While being admired for their bravery, they were simultaneously hated for their cruel acts too. These Aztecs were hired by the local towns, though. They were hired as mercenaries. Coxcox is the leader from the other tribes. Coxcox means peasant or farmer or the farmer’s leader. He started to hire the community of Aztecs as mercenaries. As per the expectations of the Coxcox, the Aztecs was doing the duty pretty well. They never let their boss down.

They were fiercely fighting against the enemies and held due respect for Coxcox. Culhua is the daughter of Coxcox. As a token of grated for winning against the enemies the Aztecs were asking the hand of Coxcox’s daughter, later on. It means Culhua after marriage will be taking the throne, and be the queen to be regarded with high respect like a goddess. Sacrifice was made later on by the Aztecs with Culhua. That made Coxcox to take revenge of t Aztecs. He sent an army to make the Aztecs get scattered here and there.

Later, they got settled in the banks of the lake Texcoco. This was chosen for the sole reason that the Aztecs got a strange message. An omen appeared with the eagle perched on a cactus plant. The eagle had a serpent on its beak. Anyone can see the same to be drawn in the coat of arms for Mexico. Anyone can see that in the Mexican flag as well. They called the place as Tenochtitlan.

The History of Mexico - The Aztec Social Hierarchy

High priests and the royal emperors ranked number one in the social set up. Military officials and the judges were in the equivalent grade. Tax collectors had a place in the creamy layer as well. Common tradition of eldest son taking the responsibility to become a king is not there in the Aztec communities. That is because there can be as many wives for any king. Only a legitimate wife is allowed per ruler while there can be even hundreds of illegitimate wives. There are kings who had more than 1000 wives too. Nobility Scholars and the real wise people belonged to these groups. Only a few people were able to serve this class as intellectual few in the society.

Others formed the intermediate groups and the lower order commoners. This segment ranked number two but only meager in their populace. There were really skilled fighters, jests and artisans in the community. The number of commoners was more though. Commoners 90% of the population is purely commoners. They were serving the same community for the simple reason that they wereable to get enough security from the royals and the nobles only then. Taxes were mandatory to be paid to the nobles regularly for the sake of protecting the life of the commons.

Slaves had no rights or hereditary assets or properties. They are the lowest of the social set up. Yet the slaves were given the liberty to marry any free person. Rich gamblers can actually bet the slaves in any wage. Man power buying and selling was one of the richest trades during those days not only line the Mesoamerica but also in many other parts of the world. Human trafficking by the secret sanities rally left to the downfall of biggest of the empires all over the world and the Aztecs war not any exception to that fact.

Heroes and history Cuauhtemo in the fifteenth century is one of the great Aztec emperors . He came to throne just at the age of eighteen. Spaniard invasions were at its peak at that point of time. The capital was besieged by the Spaniards. Aztec treasure was the target of the Spaniards. Aztec was captured while crossing the lake Texcoco and tortured bad, to reveal the secret of the treasure. There was not any treasure left out as such. It was already taken to the Honduras by that time.

Benito Juarez of nineteenth century was the key personality to fight against the French occupation and held the presidential role for more than five terms. Miguel Hidalgo is a priest, who was the key reason to start the war of independence and also successfully executed the proceedings of the war. Emiliano Zapata Salazar was a coolie of Indian and European races, who fought for land as well as independence. Just being a small land holder he fought bravely against the Diaz's land reforms and actively participated in the revolutions of independence. The Zapatistas was formed by him which is mainly poor peasants association that wished to spend most of their efforts and time towards working their land and produce an income.

Benito Juarez suggestions for world peace. Bringing in big economic reforms or doing some kind of magic in the minds of worst politicians is not the need of the hour to make the word a better place to live. It is anyone that has to change in the first place for the effective changes to fall in line. Every one of anyone should bring in the changes, for the world to become a paradise in fact. Some of the qualities that are to be inculcated without fail in order to achieve the objective without any big strain are listed below:

  • Do not worry too much for anything
  • Smile as much as you can and when possible
  • Reveal your love to the others
  • Challenging the fears of yours is paramount
  • Need to be far more assertive
  • Reciprocate your gratitude to the society
  • Help others
  • Be a good listener
  • Face yourselves boldly and openly
  • Accept yourselves completely

There is a breaking stress for tolerance. Changes in the social settings. Benito Juarez believed in the insanity of the commons as inevitable. Security and safety is the prime duty of the overruling parties. Ignorance prevails among majority of the communities far and wide. People should be enlightened and taught about the practical facts about social life as well as individual or personal life too. Education and knowledge of the real kind can only bring in effective changes in the minds of all. When anyone follows the list mentioned above anyone is developing into an individual that is ready to create a paradise in the earth for everyone to rejoice together. When anyone ideally realizes that then it is not an arduous task to accomplish.

Benito Juarez and his men used the port of Veracruz towards developing the international trade relations. New weapons were brought into the Mexican domicile through the ports. There are important landmarks in and around. Transportation facilities were channelized further in land promoting trade relations. Today the place is a hot spot. Veracruz rentals properties are of a wide range. Depending upon the tastes of the tourist guests and the budget constraints, a wide range of properties could be located all around this locality. When there is higher comfort levels, the costs are equally higher as well. The amount of money paid towards the lease could vary significantly from one property to that of the other. It depends a lot upon the particular area and locality.

Generally speaking most of the Veracruz rentals properties out here arequite convenient and comfortable for a family to dwell for weeks together. One can enjoy the wonderful climatic conditions and the natural beauty of the place. It is for these two reasons most visitors find it comfortable to visit this part of the world quite repeatedly. There are guests that lease the properties for months together. Veracruz rentals are chosen to be the best choices for corporate rewards. Companies lease some of these properties and do allow their guests to enjoy the occasion to the best. Business managers on successful completion of note worthy tasks area warded with such fabulous gifts of free stay in this exotic location.

The History of Mexico - Battle for Chapultepec Castle

Americans were greedy enough to start their invasion plans against Mexico in the year 1847. The castle stood for protecting the Mexicans who are highly injured in the battle. Port of Veracruz was captured in the month of March. Chapultepec Castle - historical facts that surmise us all Chapultepec Castle is an ancient monumental artifact that stands tall robustly in the twenty first century too in the foot of the mountains called Beiwu, by the chuangpi ocean side. Chapultepec Castle is not just made for architectural beauty. It is a great defensive fort from the coastal side for the Hymen Empire during the period of the opium war. Along with two more forts the Chapultepec Castle forms a shape of land pyramid to be solid obstacle for any infiltrates. River from across the length and quite narrowly too.

Anyone can see the spills that connected with the iron chains just between these forts. This is a deliberate constructional beauty that is a defensive measure to prevent any of the rivalry ship from navigating inside their dominion. Altogether anyone can see about 40 cannons out there in the right locations where any foreigner could easily locate it. Assaults will be ubiquitous in that way for the enemy to panic and run away from the place. Such a great defensive Chapultepec Castle is a tourist spot today for the people from all over the world to look and wonder about its amazing special features.

Anyone can see the ancient Chinese writings in the walls and the symbols that do represent their culture, heritage and true stories of the past too. These legends are actually the morale boosters for the modern day Chinese youngsters to believe in themselves in whatever they do and to fight with a lot of determination to achieve in their goals successfully. The robustness of the Chapultepec Castle portrays the strong will power and the determination of the ancient Chinese men who just belong to the weakest Mongolian race, physic wise.

The strongest Negro race is the dominant gene in the whole world physic wise according to the genetic combination. There is not any biased opinion in these logical proven evidential facts though. These are facts of nature that ever one of us has to accept. On the other hand, the intellectual capacity of the human races cannot be judged on a common basis though. It is purely dependent upon the individual and it differs by far from one person to the other. Chinese Mongolian race is dominates the Asian subcontinent by far with so much people inhabiting almost all over the far East.

Thailand, Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Bangkok and so on, everywhere anyone could see the Chinese people ruling the world by all means. Chapultepec Castle is not just the only attraction that anyone can see here in this part of the world. There are better attractions too. Guan Tianpei along with his fellow men fought against the enemy in this part of the world. Chapultepec Castle protected them from the enemies in that way. Some of the Chinese desserts, soups, and sauces are of medicinal value too. At the end of the day, anyone need to see to that anyone are striking a proper balance in the ration of proteins, carbohydrates and fats that anyone assimilate in your body.

The History of Mexico - The Porfiriato and The Regime of Diaz

President had the big power in his hands. It was the revolutions that united the people of Mexico to protest against the monarchs and get liberty as one unit together. When they united, the enemies had no other choices but to fly away from the country. Both the French and the Spanish colonies disappeared in no time after the revolution. Some positives of the Porfiriato are the artisans. Handy crafts were superior and so does the handmade Mexican hats. Cowboy hats from Mexico were world famous. Quality is superior and incomparable in standards. European clients for the cowboy hats from Mexico and the Texas region of the USA are on hot demand. Yet, the original Mexican hats were of more value.

Even to major other parts of Americas, the Mexican hats were exported. Mexican style hats are worn both for protection as well as style too. Whatever might be the purpose of using a hat on our head, anyone will always have to maintain it clean and tidy enough. An unclean hat is of no good looks and also can cause potential health hazards like skin irritation, nausea or headache, etc. So in order to keep it always look new and good anyone need to maintain

A Pact Between USA and Mexico

Just like the Canada and USA had some pacts and agreements in between, since way long time now. Just like how the Niagara borders are discreet between the two countries. Huatulco bay is exclusive rights of the Mexicans, even after the success of the Americans in the Wars fought since then. Huatulco bay - paradise underneath the blue waters Oahu Island is quite prominent enough for the rest of the world as a best tourist spot in the whole of Hawaii.

The History of Mexico - A New Era in Mexican history

Focus got shifted from invasions, dominations, and warfare towards music, arts, and recreational activities as a must in the society. Learning and development to catch up with the technology become instrumental needs and priorities for the local residents. Visitors are flurrying in to see the beauty of the wonderful attractions in Mexico. Huatulco bay is actually tucked inside the good old volcanic crater which opens up to the huge pacific ocean. It is a sparkling bay in the shape of a crescent which encompasses a lot of marine environment in it. Anyone will see a whole lot of marine life to pass by your side when anyone is doing your snorkeling in the blue waters of the Hanauma Bay.

The turquoise bay is the home of hundreds of different species of fish that anyone could have ever seen in all your lifetime. Anyone can peep through your mask of the snorkeling equipment when anyone travels underneath the water surface like a real fish. Sea turtles, living coral reef, so may underwater passage ways that anyone can explore and many morein the Huatulco bay makes it to be a stunning as well as fascinating aquatic environment altogether.

One of the very famous renowned tourist attractions globally is the Hawaii islands. The growth rate of Hawaii islands after independence from the colonial rule to as of today is just magnanimous and can be compared to the development of Japan after the Second World War destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Sophisticated country in the Asian subcontinent is a commercial leader as well as a place of luxury and enjoyment with so many ultra extravagant lavish resorts available for tourist attraction with variety pigmentation young gals to entertain.

The Hawaii islands airfare from any part of the world is not so high just because of the availability of too many carriers in that route. Hawaii islands airfare is comparatively cheaper when compared to many other tourist destinations and this is not only because of the route flexibility but also the governmental norms which has given a lot of relaxation for the majority of the airlines in the tax levies so that the costs are controlled at check so as to enhance the tourist attraction. When the number of tourists visiting the place raises the income generated out of the tourists in more than few hundred means is a hefty profit for the government. In order to develop this, on a good note they were keep on constructing fabulous places to visit in Hawaii islands for the tourists when they do visit Hawaii islands whether it is a family or singles tour anyone can make merry out there with variety of places to entertain you.

Hawaii islands airfare being minimal in this way becomes advantage for the labor category in the neighboring countries far and wide including India from where major population of Hawaii islands has come from. The cost of visit visas along with the Hawaii islands airfare becomes a nominal affordable cost package for these people to visit the place on tourist visas and try out their luck of getting a contractual offer. Services are round the clock either it is domestic or the international flights from different parts of the globe. It is approximately getting connected to one hundred and fifty different destinations all over the world right from here through air route through different airlines.

The Constructive Phases of the Revolution

Changes after the World War II were intense. The best part about the religion is that the channelizing is done by the religion to choose the right steps. Right steps taken in the right time, lead to the other Achievements. Record year for the investments made in Mexican commercial and admin or office spaces has to be noted with keen attention here, in the Mexican cities. The numbers are about three times more than what people witnessed in the year 2013, as per the reports came in from the Mexican daily, The El Mundo.

Certainly, it is one promising positive sign that is developing in the Mexican property market as a whole. Almost two thirds of the overall investments come from the global investors outside Spain, which is about 64% as per the reports received from JLL, one leading local property consultancy. When anyone discreet the investors by nationality, the British investors rank just next to the locals. Mexican investors contribute to about 36% of the overall investments made. British investors make up to 17% approximately. Investors from Switzerland and Andorra as well as from Mexico do contribute to 14, 10 and 9%, respectively.

Economical backlash counting on the deals made, the largest procurement of the office spaces was a posh portfolio of buildings that belong to the regional government of Catalan. About 32% of the overall investments were done by the local nationals. US investments follow closely with 31% while investments from France are about 18% as a whole. Positive growth coming to the retail sector, massive purchase done for the year was the deal made with the Klemperer by the Carrefour Property for about €400 million.

Second biggest deal is the acquisition of the Marinade City shopping centers located at A Corunna by the Sakami Merlin Properties. The deal was cut down for €261 million. One more noteworthy deal is the sales of the Islazul shopping centers of Madrid purchased by TIAA Henderson, an emerging investments firm. The transaction was done for about €229 million. Optimism and massive deals in the Mexican commercial and office spaces markets augurs well for the country’s economy, which will bring in a positive impact surely on the Mexican residential market too, in due course of time.

From the Mayans, and the Aztecs, of the ancient ages, to the Diaz like autocrats of the later years, Mexican ancestors have seen the worst and best of the times, under diverse circumstances. The native Indians and the nomads did not rule the place for long time for the luxurious life style of the royals, in the upper class was heavier for the lower commoners. Revolutions against the Spanish, and the French seeing the American revolution paved way for its liberty and economical prospects. When that was challenged once again by the American invasions, the unified Mexicans proved their majority as strength to remain as one of the established economies of the world.
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History of Bulgaria - The World's Oldest Civilizations

History of Bulgaria - The World's Oldest Civilizations

Historicalfacts.net: History of Bulgaria - Bulgaria is the site of one of the world's oldest civilizations, and the oldest known writing system (the Gradeshnitsa Tablets which date to at least 4000 BC). In early classical times the territory of Bulgaria was inhabited by the Thracians. The Thracians were divided into various tribes, but eventually united as the Odrysian kingdom under King Teres in the 5th century BC. The region was invaded by the Romans in 188 BC, and wars continued until 45 AD when Thrace became a Roman province.

History of Bulgaria - The World's Oldest Civilizations

Beginning in the 2nd century AD, a semi-nomadic people, the Bulgars, began to migrate towards the West from Central Asia. By the 4th century, the Bulgars had settled in the lands to the North of the Black Sea, around the Sea of Azov, and by the 7th century had established a state known as "Great Bulgaria" or "Onoghuria" in the region. Later in the 7th century, one tribe of Bulgars moved West, defeated the Byzantine empire in a war, and were recognized in the subsequent peace treaty with the Byzantines as an independent state in 681.
History of Bulgaria
History of Bulgaria - The World's Oldest Civilizations

The First Bulgarian Empire was established under the warrior Khan Krum (802 to 814) who conquered a number of lands in the Balkans. The empire eventually encompassed all of present day Romania, as well as parts of Serbia, Macedonia, Albania and Greece. It was during this period the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted, and Christianity was introduced to the Bulgarians.

The Byzantine Empire ruled Bulgaria from 1018 to 1185, but after a revolt in 1185, a Second Bulgarian Empire was established. However, this Empire was relatively short lived. In 1354 the Ottoman Turks crossed into Europe, and by 1396 had conquered the whole of Bulgaria.

After hundreds of years of Ottoman rule, Bulgaria began to experience a national revival inspired by western ideas from the enlightment, and the Greek revolt against Ottoman rule. In 1870, a Bulgarian Church ("Exarchate") was established, and in 1876 Bulgarians revolted against Ottoman rule in the April Uprising. Russia declared war on the Ottomans in 1877, and by 1878, most of Bulgaria was liberated from the Ottomans. Additional Ottoman territories in Europe were liberated in the First Balkan War (1912 to 1913), however Bulgaria was then defeated by the combinaton of Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire in the Second Balkan War (1913) and lost a significant amount of territory as a result.

During World War I, Bulgaria was allied with Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, and was for a while successful in making territorial gains. However, the war gradually became increasingly unpopular because of economic hardships, and because the population did not wish to fight in alliance with the Muslim Ottoman Empire against the Orthodox Christians of Serbia and Greece. As a result, mutinies broke out in the army, the government resigned, and a republic was proclaimed.

During World War II, Bulgaria attempted to avoid involvement in the war, and even managed to peacefully regain the territory of Southern Dobruja from Romania as a result of the 1940 Treaty of Craiova. Ultimately however, in 1941, Bulgaria had no choice but to join the Axis when German troops passed through the country in order to invade Greece.

After World War II, Bulgaria became officially known was the People's Republic of Bulgaria, and was ruled by the Bulgarian Communist Party. Communist rule ended in 1990, when the Communists voluntarily gave up power and held the first free elections since 1931. The transition from communism to capitalism has not been easy for Bulgaria; living standards fell dramatically and the country even experienced a sharp decline in population. However, since 1997, the economy has been growing steadily, and in 2007, Bulgaria joined the European Union.

The Ottoman Empire - How it Impacted the History of Bulgaria

In 1396 Bulgaria was invaded by the Ottoman Empire (the Turkish rule), which made Bulgaria history a Turkish province until 1878. Ottoman rule was harsh and inescapable, given Bulgaria's proximity to its oppressor. As a result, Bulgarians prefer not to be reminded of what is a fierce injustice to their people.

In 1878, Russia forced Turkey to give Bulgaria its independence after the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878). European powers however, fearing Russia's and Bulgaria's dominance in the Balkans, intervened at the Congress of Berlin (1878), limiting Bulgaria's territory and fashioning it into a small principality ruled by Alexander of Batten-burg, the nephew of the Russian czar.

The history of Bulgaria was dictated when Alexander was succeeded in 1887 by Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who declared a kingdom independent of the Ottoman Empire on Oct. 5, 1908. The Ottoman empire left a few traditions and cultures behind in Bulgaria.

As a result there are many Turkish influences in Bulgaria today. Bulgarians drink Turkish coffee for example, and they also have many Turkish based foods including cheese and also Bulgarian fine hand craftsmanship is also similar to the Turks.
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The History of Sushi - Pure, Beautiful, Plumb and Chewy

The History of Sushi - Pure, Beautiful, Plumb and Chewy

Historicalfacts.net: The History of Sushi - Pure and beautiful, plumb and chewy, sushi's in it's own world of tempting clean and fresh flavors. Sushi can be over the top chic at times, but it started out with much humbler roots. Sushi is over 2000 years old and started out in Japan. It started out as a process used to preserve fish by pressing the fish in a salt and rice mixture. The earliest known type of sushi was called "Nare-Zushi" or preserved carp. It was stored for months that way then opened and eaten without the rice. It is still eaten this way in some parts of Southeast Asia.

The History of Sushi

Around the fifteenth or sixteenth century the process was shortened creating the "Nama-Nare-Zushi" or partially fermented sushi. In this form the rice was eaten with the fish. It wasn't until much later, around the seventeenth century, when the Japanese started adding vinegar to cooked rice to get the trademark tangy rice taste of today. They called this "Haya-Zushi"or instant vinegared sushi rice.

By the eighteenth century "Maki-Zushi" or rolled sushi, began to appear. When the early nineteenth century rolled around (a little sushi humor there) "Nigiri-Zushi" or finger sushi, came into popularity as sushi stalls started popping up all over Japan. Sort of the first Fast Food sushi, people could eat these little bite sized rolls on the go.
The History of Sushi
The History of Sushi - Pure, Beautiful, Plumb and Chewy

The greatest moment in sushi history occurred in 1824 when a Tokyo sushi stall vendor named Hanaya Yohei made a finger sushi topped with a slice of raw fish. Word spread quickly and now we have sushi in it's current form. Raw fish and vinegared rice, what a delectable combination.

The History of Sushi - Zake Sushi

Coming across the name Zake Sushi floods a person's mind with Japanese dishes. The name Zake sounds like Sake which refers to Japanese alcoholic beverage. In western countries, Sake is mostly called rice wine. In wines, alcohol is produced through fermentation process. Natural sugar present in fruits is used for alcoholic fermentation. Sake is not processed through fermentation method, instead brewing method is used. Brewing is commonly used in beer making. It is more appropriate to call Sake as rice beer rather than rice wine.

Rice wine is not only used as beverage but also as a flavor enhancer in cooking protein and vegetable viands. On the other hand, Sushi is a popular Japanese dish not just in Asian countries but across the globe. Sushi is simply made of small portions of rice, fish, and either fruit or vegetable rolled with nori.

If you are in the mood for Japanese wine and chunks of sushi, dining in a Zake Sushi restaurant can satisfy your craving for Japanese food. In Southeast Asia fish and meat are treated with fermentation process. Meat and fish are salted and aged for long periods of time for the purpose of food preservation. This same method of extending the shelf-life of fish and meat is similar to records found in Chinese scriptures during the second century. The first sushi discovered is nare-zushi where cleaned fish is kept with uncooked rice to hasten fermentation.

Rice is discarded and only preserved fish is consumed at the end of the process. Sushi was first introduced to China and later on to Japan in the Heian period. The birth of seisei-zushi and namanare emerged. These types of Sushi concocted by the Japanese are products of their preference for eating cooked rice and preserved meat or fish together. Sushi then became accepted as a cuisine rather than a fish preservation technique.

Many restaurants and mobile food stalls in Tokyo, Japan started serving haya-zushi in the early 1800's. Haya-zushi is made in such a way that both rice and fish can be consumed at the same time and rice is no longer a preserving agent for fish. This type of sushi remained popular even today. Restaurants all over the world serving Japanese cuisine just like Zake Sushi lounge have a variety of sushi by mixing different vegetables, fruits and seasonings.

Sushi during earlier years is traditionally eaten using chopsticks. Most food shops like Zake Sushi serve sushi in a small plate with chopsticks as serving accompaniment. Special sauces are served in separate dishes. There are three famous restaurants in Tokyo, Japan which is formerly known as Edo. These restaurants are Matsunozushi, Kenukizushi and Yoheizushi. However, more restaurants came and became established.

Flavor infusion in sushi eventually took place and more sushi shops like Zake Sushi are launched. Marination is now being associated in sushi. Fish is marinated in soy sauce or in a sour sauce like vinegar and seasoned with salt. Partial cooking of fish meat is also being done to impart more flavors to the dish. When refrigeration was invented, chilled raw fish is used as filling for sushi. Evolution of a wide range of sushi dishes continued all over the world.

The Facts About Sushi

Sushi is enjoying immense popularity in the United States and other countries in the west, and all over Asia, as well. Although it is frequently thought to originate in Japan, sushi was actually first found in China.

The sushi that is popular today differs dramatically from its original form. Sushi once consisted of servings of fish that had been fermented. The fermented fish was prepared with rice in seventh-century China. Methods to keep fish from spoiling had not been discovered at the time. Fresh fish fillets were cured between sheets of salt under pressure for a number months to preserve them. The fish was then rolled into rice that had been immersed in vinegar for some time. This was done to promote the fermentation of the fish, so that it would cure more quickly. The rice was discarded, and the fish was served as sushi by itself.

The Japanese eventually discovered sushi. They took the original food and created many different varieties of the dish. It wasn't until the seventeenth century that Hanaya Yohei created the sushi that we are familiar with today. As a chef, Hanaya entertained the idea that people might have an interest in sushi in an unfermented state. It caught on immediately and became very popular, becoming the Japanese equivalent of fast food.

This more modern concept of sushi became popular throughout Asia, and a lot of ethnic variations of the dish began to appear. Fermentation of the fish and rice became popular over time, and the fermentation step that had taken years was eventually improved so that it was a lot shorter. The fish was then stuffed with cooked rice in order to preserve it.

Seaweed, or nori, was eventually introduced as sushi became more widespread, and its popularity grew. In addition to the raw fish, fish that had been pickled was offered for the first time. In order to eliminate the lengthy rice fermentation step, rice vinegar was employed. Because of this, it now took just one day to prepare sushi. Initially a basic fast food item, it didn't take long for sushi to develop into a form of art in Japan. The Japanese presentation of the dish also evolved into an artistic expression.
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Ancient Greek History - Greek Mythology

Ancient Greek History - Greek Mythology

Historicalfacts.net: Ancient Greek History - Greek Mythology. The Greeks were a part of the first western civilization in about 2000 BC. Greek mythology is said to have developed completely by 700 BC. It depicted gods in human form and they were likely to have feelings like humans too. In contrast to other religions which were dictated by prophecies and special revelations, Greek mythology is more about the lives of Gods and heroes. It does not involve a sacred book with a code to help the Greeks lead their lives in a certain way.

Ancient Greek History

According to the myth, the Gods chose their Mount Olympus which is a region in Greece called Thessaly for their abode. Here, they created a society and ranked themselves according to authority and power. They were free to roam where they wanted. While Olympus was home to many Greek Gods, there were 12 chief Gods who were referred to as the Olympians. Their names were Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Hephaestus, Athena, Artemis, Ares, Hermes, Demeter, Aphrodite, Hestia, and Poseidon.

The Greeks believed that the Gods controlled every aspect of nature and were responsible for their well-being. While the humans and Gods shared an amiable relationship, the Gods were known for punishing people who displayed unacceptable behavior. The reason why Greek myths are so popular is because they were once very intricately woven into the lives of the people. The people learnt about their Gods and heroes through word of mouth at home and through poets who narrated stories during festivals.
Ancient Greek History
Ancient Greek History

The three classic collection of myths are Theogony by Hesiod and Iliad and Odyssey by Homer. The stories and poems helped in passing downt he mythology from one generation to another. However, there are other archaeological resources which have also helped in developing Greek mythology. The literary and archaeological sources together prove that many of the stories and legends may be rooted in factual events. Starting from the creation of the world to the war of Gods and the eventual establishment of the pantheon of Gods, Greek mythology includes vivid descriptions of the Gods, their works, their relationship with humans, the heroes and the historic events.

Ancient Greek History - The Creation

According to Greek mythology, in the beginning, there was only chaos. Erebus and Night emanated from this void and everything was empty, dark and silent. When Love was born, it brought order into this endless chaos. Light and Gaea originated from Love while Ether, the heavenly light and Day, the earthly light were born from the union of Erebus and Night. All by herself, Night created the things that create fear and haunt mankind. They were Doom, Fate, Death, Sleep, Dreams and Nemesis. And Gaea on her own created Uranus, which is the sky. Uranus embraced Gaea from all sides and became her husband.

They then gave birth to three Cyclopes, three Hecatoncheires and twelve Titans. Sadly, Uranus was a cruel father. He imprisoned the Hecatoncheires to the darkest corner of Earth which was Gaea’s womb. Infuriated by this act, Gaea plotted against her husband and decided to punish him for this act with the help of her children. She created a flint sickle and asked her children to attack their father. All of them were too timid and did not want to enrage their father, all except the youngest Titan, Cronus. With the help of Cronus, Gaea set up an ambush and they were able to castrate Uranus with the sickle and Cronus threw the genitals in the ocean. The myths do not throw any light on Uranus’ fate after the castration but it is said that he promised that Cronus and the Titans will be punished for their deed.

Uranus’ blood that was spilled on Earth during the attack gave birth to the Giants, the Ash Tree Nymphs, and the Erinnyes. Aphrodite was born from the sea foam that was produced when Uranus’ genitals were casted into the sea. After imprisoning the Cyclopes and Hecatoncheiresin Tartarus, Cronus ruled for many ages. He married his sister Rhea but he was afraid that his parents’ prophesy may come true. Both Uranus and Gaea had prophesied that Cronus’ eventual doom is written in the hands of one of his sons. In an attempt to overcome this prophecy, Cronuss wallowed all his children when they were born.

Saddened and exasperated by the fate of her children, Rhes plotted against Cronus and when it was time for her sixth child to be born, she hid herself and gave the child to the Nymphs to be raised. She then wrapped a stone in swaddling cloth and gave it to Cronus who swallowed it. Raised by the Nymphs, this child was named Zeus. He grew up into a handsome and brave youth at the island of Crete. He plotted to kill his father and avenge his siblings and for this he consulted Metis who prepared a drink which would make him vomit the children he had swallowed. Cronus accepted his son Zeus as a cup-bearer when Rhea told him that he was alive and convinced him to bring their son back.
Ancient Greek History
Zeus (image by wikipedia)

Zeus took advantage of this opportunity to serve Cronus the potion prepared by Metis. The five children came out of their father unharmed because they were Gods. They were appreciative of their younger’s brother’s courage and chose him as their leader. Angered by Zeus’ actions, Cronus – who was yet to be defeated – sought the help of the Titans to rule once again. All the Titans except Prometheus, Epimetheus and Oceanus fought along with Cronus. This battle between the Titans and the Olympians is known as Titanomachy. Atlas led the Titans against Zeus and the young Gods and they seemed to be in a position to overpower the Olympians, but Zeus’ with helped the Olympians win the battle.

He went to Tartarus and rescued the imprisoned Cyclopes and Hecatoncheires. Prometheus – one of the Titans – joined the battle taking Zeus’ side. With stronger allies, Zeus was victorious and he exiled the all the Titans except Atlas to Tartarus. Atlas’ punishment was that he had to hold the universe on his shoulders. Gaea was not happy to hear about the imprisonment of her children, and so she gave birth to Typhon who is considered to be the deadliest monster in Greek mythology. Zeus was the only God brave enough to face Typhon. He used his lightning bolts and killed the monster that is known to be buried under Mount Etna in Sicily.

Since Prometheus and Epimetheus had not joined the opposing forces during the Titanomachy, Zeus did not imprison them. Instead, the two Titans were given the task of creating man. Prometheus shaped man in the form of the Gods out ofmud and Athena breathed life into the mud figure. Epimetheus gave the creatures various qualities like looks, cunningness, strength, nimbleness, wings and fur. In wanting to give the creatures all the great qualities, he realized that he did not have anything left by the time he came to man, so Prometheus decided to give man fire which was till then limited to the Gods.

Prometheus’ love for mankind was far more than that for the Olympians who had banished most of his family. Zeus took away fire from man but Prometheus brought it back for them by lighting a torch from the sun. Enraged by Prometheus’ affection for mankind, Zeus decided to punish them. To do so he created a beautiful mortal and the Olympians gave her many gifts of wealth. But to punish man, Hermes gave the mortal a deceptive heart and a lying tongue. She was the first woman and her name was Pandora. The Gods gave her one last gift which was a box, but she was forbidden from opening it. Zeus sent her to Epimetheus who had chosen to live among men.

Prometheus had cautioned is brother to not accept any gifts from Zeus, but Pandora’s mesmerizing beauty charmed Epimetheus who let her stay. Pandora’s curiosity got the better of her and one day she finally opened the forbidden box and ended up releasing all evils upon Earth. By the time she closed the lid, the only thing that was left in the box was hope. Having had his revenge on mankind, Zeus also wanted to punish Prometheus and so he had him chained to a rock on Caucasus Mountains with unbreakable chains. There, a giant eagle tore at his liver every day for thirty years. Zeus told Prometheus that he would be released from the torment if he told Zeus who was the mother of the child who would overthrow him or if an immortal died in Prometheus’ stead and a mortal killed the eagle and unchained him. Prometheus was released when Chiron the centaur gave up his life for Prometheus and Heracles killed the eagle to unchain him.

This is how Gods and men were created according to Greek mythology. The Gods were very much like human when it came to physical structure, looks and emotions. Each of the Gods expressed feelings like anger, jealousy, love, joy just like the humans. They had their own limitations and their own weaknesses. They were not portrayed as ideal figures, their flaws were described as vividly as their strengths. They represented each side of human nature and their perception of justice was from their own point of view. Every God had their own realm, and many of them had children with mortals too. These children often reflected additional powers like Heracles. Zeus was the ruler of the Gods and he was omnipotent and he ruled all the realms.

Ancient Greek History - The Era of Gods and Mortals

Then the Gods lived on their own, the myths were mainly about the fight for being the ruler. The stories revolved around the creation and birth of Gods and their role in the wars that took place during this period. But when humans were created, Greek mythology began to include stories about how the Gods roamed freely among the people and the interactions of the Gods and humans. Ovid’s Metamorphoses has many of these stories about how the two worlds mingled with each other. These mythical stories were primarily divided into two themes; love and punishment.

Myths themed on love had stories about Gods falling in love with a mortal woman or seducing or raping a mortal woman which led to the birth of a hero. These stories generally pointed towards the fact that relationships of this kind should not be formed since they may not lead to a happy ending. While most of the Gods in such stories were males, there are a few instances where Goddesses also harbored feelings of love for a mortal man. Then there were the tales of punishment where the Gods punished other Gods or mortals for deeds that were regarded as inappropriate or for any form of misbehavior.
Ancient Greek History

Prometheus’ punishment for stealing fire from the Gods was one such tale. The Gods strongly believed in punishment and tales of punishment are abundantly found in Greek mythology. The Gods lived in Mount Olympus but they interacted with humans in different forms and ways through which judgment was passed on the actions of the humans. While there were 12 chief Gods, there were many others who belonged to a certain realm. Zeus was the leader of the Gods. He was considered to be the spiritual father of Gods and humans with his might reaching out to all the realms. He was the God of thunder and sky and his symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, oak and the bull.

He was known for his violence. He often terrorized men and was very keen about punishments. According to a story in Greek mythology, he got so enraged with human behavior and the way they performed sacrifices on one another that he decided to take the help of his brother Poseidon and wipe out the entire human population. A flood ended human life on Earth and only two humans were left to repopulate the world. They were Deucalion and Pyrrha.

Hera was Zeus’ wife and the queen of heaven. Since she was partner to the leader of Gods, Hera is often considered as the guardian of marriage as well. Hera is the daughter of Cronus and Rhea too which makes Zeus her brother as well. She is known to have harbored feelings of jealousy against Zeus’ other consorts and his children from them. It is said that even Zeus was afraid of her tantrums. She often tormented the children Zeus had from his mortal consorts. The most noted story about Hera’s jealousy involves Heracles who was born to Alcmene.

Hephaestus is the Greek God of file and metal workers. He created all the weapons for Gods and served as a blacksmith for the Gods. Many manufacturing and industrial centers in Greece worship Hephaestus. He had his own workshop in Olympus where he had 20 bellows that worked according to his commands. All weaponry and metalwork that is known to have great powers and was used by the Gods was said to have originated in Hephaestus’ workshop.
Ancient Greek History
Hephaestus and Athena (image by wikipedia)

His most popular creation was Pandora, the first woman in Greek mythology. Athena is the Goddess of wisdom and war. She is said to have had a calm temperament and was known to fight for just reasons. Zeus’ union with Metis – Goddess of crafty thought and wisdom – gave birth to Athena. But her birth was not an ordinary one. Since it was prophesied that Zeus will be overpowered by one of his own children, he realized that his union with Metis may give birth to a child of great power. So he swallowed Metis but by that time, she had already conceived Athena. He ended up with a bad headache and legend has it that Athena sprung out of his head fully grown and dressed in armor. She never took a consort and is known for sexual modesty.

Often called Athena Parthenos which stands for Virgin Athena, she is the virgin patroness of her namesake city, Athens. Apollo is the God of light and he is often recognized as the God of music, truth, prophecy, healing, poetry and plague. He is considered to be one of those Greek Gods who has some very complex and intriguing stories built around him. He is the son of Zeus and Leto and he has a twin sister, Artemis. Mythology states that Artemis was born before Apollo and is known to have even assisted with her brother’s birth. It is said that his first heroic act was of killing the Chthonic Dragon, Python, when he was just four days old.

He also plays a role in the Trojan War where he shot arrows that were infected with plague into the Greek encampment. He had male and female lovers and he is known to have fathered many children. During the Renaissance, Apollo was chosen as a common theme by many artists. Artemis is the Goddess of wildlife. She was Apollo’s elder twin, and most of the artists depicted her as a huntress. She chose her hunting companion Orion as her partner. Orion was eventually killed in an accident by either Artemis or Gaea. Ancient Spartans used to prepare a sacrifice for her before they started any military campaign. Sometimes, she is also portrayed as a moon Goddess. Paintings and sculptures depicting Artemis usually show a very soothing and serene look on her.

Ares is the God of war. Son of Zeus and Hera, Ares represents the violent aspect of war which includes physical vehemence. While he is known for physical valor, there is the part of Ares which is considered to be a dangerous force, because of his insatiable need for war and violence. He is one of the Gods whose reputation remained ambivalent among the Greeks. In the Trojan War, he was on the losing side while his sister Athena who represents wisdom, was worshipped for military strategy and was known to be on the winning side. Ares’ mention in Greek mythology usually involves humiliation.

Aphrodite is the Goddess of love, beauty and sexuality. While Hesiod’s account of her birth in Theogony claims that she was born from the foam that was formed when Cronus’ genitals were thrown into the sea, Homer’s Iliad sees Aphrodite as Zeus and Dione’s daughter. Zeus married her to Hephaestus who was deformed. She had many lovers, both Gods and mortals. In most of the paintings and sculptures Aphrodite is depicted nude. Mythology has no account of her childhood, and it is considered that she was born as a very desirable adult. Her marriage does not stop her from having a number of affairs with other men and Gods. She often sought for the company of Ares but she is known to have been with others like Adonis. She plays an important role throughout the Trojan War, and is also known to have caused the War by offering the mortal, Paris, Helen of Troy is he judges her as the fairest one.
Ancient Greek History

Hestia is the virgin Goddess of hearth. She is linked with architecture, home and domesticity among the Greeks. Mythology established her as the first daughter of Cronus and Rhea. While she was born first, Hestia was the last one to be regurgitated by Cronus and so she is considered to be the eldest and the youngest daughter. Hestia chose a life of perpetual virginity after rejecting marriage proposals from Apollo and Poseidon. Zeus assigned her the job of feeding and maintaining the firs of Olympia’s hearth with the help of the fatty portions of animal sacrifices that were made to the Gods. This is why she was always honored when food was cooked or when any animal offerings were made.

Hermes is the messenger of Gods and is usually associated with Science and invention. He is the son of Zeus and Pleiad Maia. Most of the myths show him as a quick and cunning God who often outwits other Gods. He also plays the role of an intercessor between the mortals and the divine and he is known to be a conductor of souls into afterlife. Mythical stories generally depict him as one of the benefactors of humans. He supported the Greeks in the Trojan War. In the Odyssey, he helps Odysseus by telling him about what would happen to his companions. He helped his great-great-grandson, protect him selfagainst the powers of Circe by chewing a magical herb. This ensured that he did not turn into an animal like the rest of his friends.

Poseidon is the God of the Sea. He was born to Cronus and Rhea and while some stories say that he was saved by his brother Zeus who had his father regurgitate his siblings including Poseidon, another mythological story states that just like Zeus, Rhea was able to save Poseidon by deception as well. She concealed Poseidon among a flock of lambs and pretended that she had given birth to colt. She presented the colt to Cronus who devoured it. His consort, Amphitrite, is a nymph and is also believed to be an ancient sea-goddess. Poseidon had many lovers of both sexes. He is fathered many children from mortals and Goddesses. Some of his children also grew up to become heroes. Most of the Greek artists depict him as a bearded mid-aged God riding a chariot which is pulled by horses who can ride on the sea. He, along with his wife, led a society of smaller Gods like the Nereids and the Tritons.

Demeter is the Goddess of agriculture. She is associated with the fertility of Earth. The most popular story related to Demeter is about her virgin daughter, Persephone’s abduction by Hades, the God of underworld. Demeter was so grief-struck by the abduction that Earth began to lose its fertility and all the fruits and flowers dried. Seasons did not change any longer and all plants stopped growing. Concerned by the situation created by the abduction, Zeus decided to send his messenger Hermes to the underworld to bring him back. The story from here as different versions, but all of them involve Persephone eating the seeds of Pomegranate while she was in the underworld. This meant that she would have to spend a few months every year in the underworld.

This time of the year was marked by the unfruitful season in the Greek calendar. Hades is the God of underworld. He rules the underworld which is a place for the souls of the people who have died, along with his wife Persephone. His abduction of Persephone is a popular story in Greek mythology. Dionysus is the God of wine and pleasure. He was one of the most popular Gods worshipped by the Greeks. There were a lot of festivals that were dedicated to Dionysus, and in some regions he was even considered to be as important as Zeus. Most of the artistic depictions of Dionysus show him accompanied with other smaller Gods like satyrs, centaurs and nymphs. These Gods played an important role in Greek mythology.

They interacted frequently with the mortals and most of their stories are based on the way Gods and humans communicated and mingled. With their powers and might, Gods were able to help, save and bring relief to many humans but when they were enraged, they would use their powers to punish them as well. Every God had their own cult and region where they were praised and worshipped.

Ancient Greek History - The Heroic Age

The Heroic Age began with the coming of the Greeks to Thessaly and it ended with the return of the Greeks from Troy. During this period, a number of heroes with supernatural powers lived and roamed the regions of Greece. While there is no fixed list for the heroes, there were some very interesting events that took place during the time because of the heroes. The courageous acts of Heracles is said to be the beginning of the Heroic Age during which period, three great events took place in Greek mythology.

These were the expedition of the Argonauts, the Theban Cycle and the Trojan War. The early Greek heroes were those who were not divine but they could trace their roots to the Gods. These early heroes were later descendants to other heroes as well. One of the earliest Greek heroes was the Phoenician prince Cadmus. He was Poseidon’s grandson and Agenor’s son. Cadmus founded Thebes. The Theban Cycle is a collection of four lost epics which are in connection with the city of Thebes.

Perseus is another Greek hero of early Greek mythology. He was the son of Zeus and the most popular mythical story about his heroic adventures include the one where he beheads Medusa. The stories also talk of his bravery when he saved Andromeda from the sea monster. Perseus was the founder of Mycenae. Heracles was his great grandson. Heracles was the greatest of the heroes in Greek mythology. He is also known as Hercules. He displayed extraordinary strength and courage and when strength was not the answer, he knew how to use his wit to succeed. He was considered to be a benefactor of Earth because he had saved mortals from a number of monsters and archaic forces.

Heracles was portrayed as a passionate and emotional mortal who loved to play games when he had the time. He was a very loving person who was loved a lot by children too. His heroic deeds include the twelve labors and many other adventures. It is said that he was accepted into the Olympian Pantheon during the Classical times.
Ancient Greek History

The Argonauts were the heroes who sailed along with Jason to bring the Golden Fleece which was considered to be a symbol of authority and kingship. They sailed in a ship called the Argo and thus the name Argonauts. The Golden Fleece was in the kingdom of Colchis on the Black Sea. Once Jason returned with the Golden Fleece he would be able to rule the kingdom of Iolcos in Thessaly. The Argonauts faced many hurdles in accomplishing their mission. The heroes sailed on bravely and were finally able to obtain the Fleece. It is said that there may be some truth in this myth because geological studies prove that the mountainous area of Svaneti was a place that was rich in gold, and the villagers used to use sheep skin to capture placer gold from the streams in the mountains.

Then there was the Greek hero Oedipus who kills his father and marries his mother with no knowledge of the fact they was his parents. The plays on Oedipus were written by Sophocles. The stories related to Oedipus show how fate takes its turn and how Oedipus handles the truth. The Heroic Age also includes the heroes from the Theban Cycle. It includes Oedipus’ story and how he solves the Sphinx’ riddle to get the throne. The popular story was Seven Against Thebes in which Oedipus’ two sons, Eteocles and Polynices, fight against each other and of Polynices’ unsuccessful attempt to capture the city of Thebes with six other commanders.

The Heroic Age came to an end with the Trojan War. The War saw many heroes fight for the Greeks and against them. A lot of heroes were lost during the War as well. Achilles’ choice of fighting in the war so that he can be remembered forever even if he lives a short life instead of choosing a long life of obscurity is a famous story in Greek mythology. Mortality is what made the heroes so popular. Unlike Gods, they could not live forever, but they chose to live their lives to bring peace to mankind and to make sure that the mortals lived a peaceful life.

Ancient Greek History - The Age of Philosophy and Rationalism

In early periods, Greek mythology was accepted in the daily lives of the people. This was during the Ancient times when myths were a way to describe natural phenomena, cultural differences and enmities and friendships that had been established for generations. But gradually, these myths began to lose their true essence when philosophy, history and rationalism gained grounds.

During the late 5th century, many Greek historians and philosophers began to openly criticize the mythical stories. Xenophanes was one of the philosophers who began to publicly suggest that the mythical stories were lies. He said that the Gods described by Hesiod and Homer have many faults and they are generally attributed with characteristics that would be otherwise shameful for mortals. Plato was another philosopher who referred to the myths as old wives’ chatter. He also explained that the way in which Gods are described doing wrong things like committing adultery, stealing and deceiving is immoral.

While these philosophers were not able to completely wipe myths from amongst the Greeks, they had an impact upon many people. The more orthodox Greeks did not find this to be favourable and they tried to keep the mythical stories alive in as many ways as possible. They told the stories in local cults and they used the stories as the main subject for paintings, poetries and sculptures.

Euripedes was a tragedian during the 5th century BC who also mocked the old traditions and the myths. He often used his plays to create a note of doubt in the various mythical stories. He criticized the way Gods had been described in early Greek stories and legends and usually objected to the myths. The Greek mythographer, Euhemerus, during the Hellenistic period looked for historical evidence to prove that the myths were based on true stories. Many other mythographers and philosophers were a part of this period when people tried to make more sense of the mythological stories.

While religion was an important aspect among Greeks, the philosophers were inclined towards proving that the myths set a bad example for the people about their Gods. Superstitions were seen as a medium to create fear among people, and philosophers believed that religion helps people come closer to God and not to fear them. Lucretius was one of the people who tried to increase understanding of the fact that superstitions did not have a very firm basis. He tried to remove superstitions from among the people.

Livy chose not to pass judgment based on the mythological traditions and he explained that these stories and legends did not take root from actual occurrences. Gradually, the Romans began to use Greek mythological stories as a basis for their own myths because the Romans did not have a lot of mythology of their own. This is why many Roman Gods had characteristics of Greek Gods and you will be able to find a similarity in Roman and Greek mythology. Where the Greeks saw Zeus as the leader of the Gods, the Roman counterpart of Zeus was Jupiter.

Many other Greek Gods have similar Roman counterparts. When the Romans imbibed the Greek mythology, they tried to keep the religious essence of it. Antiquarian, Varro also explained that religion was important for the people but it should not create fear among them through superstitions. According to him, while the superstitious will fear God, the religious will find venerate them as parents.

Ancient Greek History - Modern Interpretations

The modern understanding of Greek mythology is very different. It is no longer rooted in superstitions or fears. Today it is more of a study of the myths and the use of mythological characters in modern arts. The Christian interpretation of myth as a lie makes all these mythological stories, no more than just a classic tale of Gods and heroes with no evidence or truth in them. During the eighteenth century, German scholars tried to revive Greek mythology and they established the foundations for mythological research in Germany.

Sigmund Freud explained that myths were an expression of repressed ideas. Carl Jung added to the Freudian myth interpretation with his theory of the unconscious mind. Mythological Gods and creatures are also studied to find resemblance in another mythologies and stories. Many Greek Gods and Goddesses are similar to those in other Indo European cultures. While the mythological stories were reduced to lies with the adoption of Christianity, these myths still had an impact among the artists who picked themes related to the Greek myths for their artistic representations.

Popular artists like Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael were known to pick Christian as well as Pagan subjects for their paintings and sculptures. Renaissance poets like Petrarch, Boccaccio and Dante were also influenced by Greek mythology. Many Northern European countries used Greek mythology as a source of inspiration for literature. In these countries, Greek myths did not have a huge impact on visual arts. Chaucer, John Milton, Shakespeare and Robert Bridges are some of the authors whose works showed influence of Greek myths.

The myths spread across Europe after the Enlightenment period. These myths were a great source of inspiration for many artists, authors and poets. Recent novelists like James Joyce and Andre Gide are also inspired by Greek mythology. Greek myths are now seen as important for the understanding of English and American literature by many authors. Greek mythology tells stories and legends about Gods and heroes right from the beginning.

Hesiod and Homer were two luminaries of the period whose workswe are able to use to know and interpret Greek mythologies. They gave birth to a lot of superstitions and they also helped the people understand natural occurrences. Right from the creation when there was nothing but chaos, to the time when the heroes saved mankind from evil forces, the mythical stories include interesting accounts of Gods and people and their interaction with each other.

The philosophers tried to interject a note of doubt among the people, trying to question their unperturbed faith in Gods that seemed to be too vile and fearful. The age of rationalism tried to question the credulity of the myths and enforced a sense of rationalism among the people. Needless to say, this had an impact but the stories and legends continued to be passed on from one generation to another. While people stopped trying to trace their roots to the Gods and Olympians, they did pass on these stories.

Even till today, Greek mythology is considered to be one of the most interesting mythologies. It has numerous Gods and heroes and all ofthem have a number of stories related to them. These Gods and heroes are not only remembered for their acts in the stories, but with modern paintings and sculptures that interestingly capture the beauty of these myths. A lot of mythographers today look for evidence or truth behind these myths. While some may be deemed as completely insubstantial, there are many that may have some truth in it. For example the story of the Argonauts has an explanation which matches reality. There is a possibility that the Argonauts may have existed, although their acts and stories may have been quantified to portray them as heroes.

Gods and mortals at one time shared a friendly relationship according to Greek mythology. The immortal Gods took residence in Olympia which was on Earth and they roamed freely among the people. They were seen to have traits that were similar to humans as well and their faults were magnified just as much as their good deeds. This proved that mortals were the same as the Gods and many of them were even considered to be more heroic than them.
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Ancient Rome History: The Long Journey of Rome

Ancient Rome History: The Long Journey of Rome

Historicalfacts.net: Ancient Rome History - Like most civilizations Rome too has a myth in its finding. The city was founded by two brothers Romulus and Remus who were twin sons of Rhea Silvia the daughter of Latin King Numitor. It is said that Rhea was made pregnant by the Roman God of War, Mars which made the twins half human and half divine. Threatened by the existence King Amulius had them thrown in water but were saved brought up by a she-wolf. Some say that a shepherdess saved them and brought them up as her children who later grew up to have returned Numitor his throne. The twins then founded of what we know as Rome. A quarrel among the brothers left Remus dead while Romulus became its ruler. Rome was named after Romulus. While the myths have their own importance, here is shedding light on the more actual history of Ancient Rome.

Rome was a small town in the beginning of the eighth century BC, surviving beside the River Tiber. The location of the city was perfect for trade to flourish and was a route for the merchants. The water of River Tiber was navigable which enabled them to cross it and trade their merchandise. It was the influence of Greeks that gave the Romans a structure on which they could further build their own tradition and cultures. Religion, architecture and literacy were what they borrowed from them before developing it as their own.
Ancient Rome History
Ancient Rome History: The Long Journey of Rome

The kingdom slowly developed and in later years came to dominate its surrounding nations too. The kingdom produced so many literary geniuses that most of the languages such as Spanish, French, Romanian, Italian and Portuguese which are collectively known as Romance languages have been derived from Latin. Even most of the words of the modern English language have Latin roots. The Kingdom saw golden age of prosperity and peace before it crumbled to its own burden of distended empire.

Early Roman Kingdom

The version of ancient Rome can be seen through works of Plutarch, Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Livy who say that Rome was initially ruled by succession of seven kings. As per Varro, another literary genius, 243 years have been accounted for the rule of these seven kings. After which the city was invaded by the Gauls who sacked the city and burnt the city and along with the city burned all the written records. Romulus was the founder and first king of Rome, he is said to have ruled Rome for 36 years after which he vanished and after a year of gap in the government the Senate which was also founded by Romulus and comprised of noble men, selected Numa Pompilius to be their next king.

After 43 years of peaceful reign by Numa, Rome was then ruled by Tullus Hostilius who preferred war and he reigned for 31 years. Ancus Marcius was grandson of Numa and took the throne after Tullus. He was calm and peaceful and built many new buildings in the city. He ruled for 25 years before he was succeeded by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus. Lucius had emigrated from Etruria and Ancus had adopted him as his son. He ruled well and expanded the borders of Rome and added to its treasury. He laid the foundations for Roman Forum and began Roman games.

One of the most famous constructions from his reign is the Circus Maximus which is a gigantic stadium for horse racing. He also introduced symbols for civil and military offices. After 38 years of his long rule, he was murdered by one of Ancus’ own son. Lucius was succeeded by his son-in-law Servius Tullius. He constructed the pomerium around the Seven Hills of Rome. He introduced voting rights and established first census of Rome which segregated Rome into five economic classes. After ruling for 44 years he was murdered by his own daughter Tullia and son-in law Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
Ancient Rome History
Circus Maximus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the seventh king of Rome. He killed his father-in-law and took over the throne. He used violence to rule Rome and disrespected the Roman Senate and the customs of the kingdom. Problems for Superbus began when his son Sextus Tarquinius raped a woman named Lucretia who was the daughter and wife to very influential nobles. Lucretia revealed the story to her father and plead to be given justice before the magistrate, she stabbed herself in front of many people and died in her father’s arms.

A revolution led by four men with Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus who was Lucretia’s husband, in the lead, overthrew the king - Lucius Tarquinius Superbusand banished his whole family into an exile. The people were already angry with Tullia who had horrifically murdered her father for the throne. Brutus and Collatinus became the first consuls Roman Repulic.

Roman Republic

The Roman Kingdom was overthrown and the Republic was established under Brutus and Collatinus. The government was headed by two consuls who were to be elected every year by the citizens on the advice of the senate. The senate comprised of a group of magistrates. The Roman society was hierarchical in nature and the change in government was highly subjective to the high ruling class families of Rome who were termed as ‘patricians’.

The beginning of Roman Republic is marked by 509 BC when the Roman Kingdom was overthrown and the Republic crumbled in 27 BC with the establishment of Roman Empire. During the time of Republic, Rome spread its boundaries. It did not just concentrate on its surroundings but also throughout the Mediterranean region. There were a series of conquests made. Italian peninsula, what is present southern France, central Italy, Iberian peninsula and North Africa.

By the end of 1st century BC Rome comprised of eastern Mediterranean, present France and Greece. Although there was much expansion done by Republic Rome there was always a situation of conflict in the internal Rome. The aristocrats and the ordinary public of the nation were always at war. Before the century could end, Julius Caesar was in power. The First Triumvirate was formed which included Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Pompey.
Ancient Rome History
Julius Caesar (image by walmerweb.co.uk)

The senate had named Caesar "dictator perpetuo", he was all powerful but the senate started to conspire against him as he had urged for more power. He was assassinated by his general Brutus. After the death of Caesar, there was a Second Triumvirate formed which comprised of Caesar’s nephew Octavian, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and one more general of Caesar known as Mark Antony. They defeated the assassinators of Julius Caesar and divided the government to rule among themselves.

Antony was given the charge of eastern provinces, Lepidus was looking after Africa while Octavian took care of Gaul and Hispania from Italia. Lepidus once betrayed Antony in Sicily and Antony had an affair with the Queen of Egypt, Cleopatra. This was considered as treason and Octavian attacked and defeated them. Both Cleopatra and Antony committed suicide later on. Later on, Octavian took complete control of Rome once he had defeated both Lepidus and Mark Antony. Octavian was given the title of "Augustus" and made the first Emperor of Rome. This marked the end of Roman Republic and the beginning of Roman Empire.

Roman Empire

Roman Empire lasted for 1500 years. After the people proclaimed Octavian the Emperor of Rome then there was a period of succession of his heirs. His clan yielded four emperors after him; Tiberius, Caligula, Cladius and Nero. After this, there was a war between four emperors in the year 69 AD, between June and December of the same year four emperors came to throne and went down too - Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian. Vespasian sustained and was the founder of Flavian dynasty followed by Nerva-Antoinne dynasty. This dynasty saw some of the best emperors of Rome and were together known as "Five Good Emperors" they were; Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.

In 180 AD, when the throne was taken by emperor Commodus marked the fall of Roman Empire. One of the Greek historians Dio Cassius said that the rule of Commodus marked the decline of Rome from a kingdom of gold to that of rust and iron. In the year 212, Caracalla of Severan dynasty granted Roman Citizenship to all the free born occupants of Rome. Emperor Elagabalus who was unpopular among the people was murdered by the people along with his mother when they heard a rumour that Alexander Severus who was also eligible to the throne was killed. They put Alexander on throne who was guided by his intelligent mother Julia Avita Mamaea. He tried to restore peace in the empire but he had to face the greatest challenge which was German invasion and the influence of Sassanian Empire whose power seemed to rise quickly.

After his death, there fell upon the empire a period of crisis because of a series of misfortunes. Severus Alexander was killed by his own army men, his death began a 50 year period where around 26 Roman generals took different parts of Rome under their control and declared themselves emperors, this was accepted and made legal by the Senate. Beside this, there were combined foreign invasions, plague, internal civil wars and economic depression and it was known as Crisis of the Third Century.

Rome was split into three states and the crisis caused extensive changes in the economy, society, religion and the rules of the empire. The three states were; Palmyrene Empire which comprised of Palaestina, Syria and Aegyptus. The Italian centred Roman Empire, and the Gallic Empire which included the provinces of Britannia, Gaul and Hispania.

This period is also marked as the changeover from Classical Antiquity to Late Antiquity. It was in the year 270 when Aurelian who was from humble backgrounds ros eto the position of an emperor and restored peace back in the empire. It was he who successfully ended the Crisis of the third century which also earned him the title of "Restitutor Orbis", which translates as restorer of the world.

Diocletian, who took the reins of Roman Empire in his hands in 284, completed what Aurelian started and restored peace in the empire completely. With him also began absolute monarchy in Roman Empire till 1453 until the Eastern Roman Empire fell. Diocletian followed "Tetrarchy" way to rule the empire. In a tetrarchy, the power of the administration is divided among four people. However when Diocletian thought Rome was stable, he gave up the throne. The tetrarchy soon distorted and fell without him and it was Constantine who restored peace back in the empire.

Constantine controlled the Western Roman Empire while Licinius I was in control of the Eastern Roman Empire. However, in 324, Constantine defeated Licinius in a battle and unified both Eastern and Western Roman Empires and declared himself Augustus. Constantine was the first emperor to become a Christian. Constantinople was established as the capital of eastern empire. For next few years, there was east and west axis and both Rome and Constantinople were centre of powers.

Theodosius I made Christianity the official religion of Roman Empire. His death in 395 AD also marked him as the last emperor to rule East and West Rome. In early years of the 5th century, the Western Roman Empire began to scatter. Rome was overflowing with immigrants and so were the invasions from Germanic tribes along with other tribes such as Attila. Romans successfully drove all of them but there were some Germanic migrants whose loyalty did not lie in Rome.
Ancient Rome History
Theodosius I

The last Roman emperor of the Western Roman Empire was Romulus Augustulus. He was forced by a Germanic warlord by the name of Odoacer to resign from the throne. Romulus was a young boy, an Odoacer had pities on him, which is why he sent him on an exile instead of killing him. Romulus Augustulus – had the name of the founder of Rome and the first emperor of Rome but he happened to end a part of one of the most powerful kingdoms. When Romulus Augustulus was made the emperor of the Western Empire, only about 20 percent of the actual empire was left. Once Odoacer exiled Augustulus it marked the end of Western Roman Empire as he ended the line of Western Emperors.

Even after the Western Roman Empire fell the Eastern Roman Empire survived for several years. In the Middle Ages the Eastern Empire also known as the Byzantine Empire was a quiet and stable Christian empire. But from the 6th century Byzantine also started to distort. Much parts of Italy which were under Byzantine were lost mostly taken over by Lombards. The Plague of Justinian which cost about 25 million lives had further shaken the foundations of Rome. Then there was rise of Islam and their conquerors took over Egypt, Syria and Armenia. Constantinople was also under their threat now. Sicily and Italy were soon taken over by the Arabs.

In the 8th century the Romans stopped this Islamic invasion and whatever they lost to the Arabs were taken back by them by the beginning of 9th century. The Eastern Empire rose to glory once again in the 1000 AD. Emperor of Byzantine, Basil II took back Armenia and Bulgaria which became important centres of trade and culture. The glory of the Romans did not last long and in one of the battles they marked their decline. The Battle of Manzikert fought between Byzantine and Seljukin 1071 AD opened the gates of the empire to the Turks. Byzantine’s borders became weak thus allowing a mass movement of Turks.

In the battle of Manzikert the emperor of Byzantine was taken prisoner by a Muslim commander. After twenty years of internal conflicts and invasions of the Turks in 1095 AD, Emperor Alexious I Komnenos finally asked for help from the Western European kingdoms. They sent Crusades who sacked Constantinople in 1204. They looted and destroyed the city in a way that it could never come back to an empire that it was in its glorious past. Finally the newly rising power of the Ottoman sieged Constantinople on May 29, 1453 marking the end of what was left of Byzantine.

Society of Ancient Rome Government

Earlier when Rome was ruled by the Kings, they were elected by main tribes of Rome in turns. While the powers which they exercised is unknown but in terms of giving orders to the army the complete power lay in the hands of the king. The king was the head of the state religion. Beside the king the power rested in three more bodies of administration: the Senate which was the advising body to the king, the Comitia Curitia which approved and sanctioned the laws which were given by the king and the Comitia Calata which was an assembly of the priests who had the power to gather people and declare holidays or feats for that particular month.

In the time of the Roman Republic there were skirmishes between the different classes and this led to a mixed democracy, an oligarchy. In an oligarchy the administration of the nation is controlled by a handful people who belong to high classes or are wealthy nobles. The "Commitia Tributa" or the Popular Assembly would vote to pass a specific law and the people standing for public positions had to stand for elections. The Roman Senate was a group who were more of advisors to those who were running the administration. Even though the Senate was just an advisory body the Senators were quite powerful and if the Senate together didn’t approve of something it was impossible to get it done.

Later on the Senators were selected by Censors and they also had the power to remove the Senators if they were found corrupt. New magistrates were elected every year and they had to share their power with a colleague in case there were emergency situations a temporary dictator would be appointed. There were so many revisions in the administrative system of the Roman Republic just to meet the demands of the people that it became completely inefficient and finally collapsed to form the Roman Empire.

However, a republican form of government was still followed in the shadow of the Roman Empire and the Emperor was simply the first citizen. The Senate became powerful and the legislative powers which the assemblies held were now theirs. It was in the later years that the powers were taken by the emperor in his hands and the Senate then became the advisors to the emperor. Although there were advisors and people who took care of the administration of the empire there still lacked in the Roman Empire proper institutions which later on led to the decline of Rome.

Social Class Structure

Based upon the income and occupation of the inhabitants of the society ancient Romans had divided themselves into three groups or social classes: the free born citizens or "cives" were at the top, in the middle were freedmen or "liberti" who were slaves but had been freed by their masters and in the bottom were the slaves or "servi". An earlier form of division was the patricians and the plebs. The patricians were aristocrats or the ruling class families and the plebs were the commoners. This differentiation in class became of lesser importance when the patricians became lesser in financial conditions while the plebeians became rich and also joined politics.

However, those who were from the patrician ancestry were always considered to have a certain respect and prestige in the society and there remained some offices which were only limited to the patricians. Division of class became important on military service. Also the censors which happened at regular intervals and the classes were also determined by them, as per the property every family held. Dominating the army and politics were the Senatorial class who were considered to be the highest and also the richest. Families who could own a war horse and those who belonged to the richer merchant class were known as ‘equestrians’.

Many more classes followed based on the military weapons and equipment’s which they could afford and the last position was occupied by the "proletarii" who did not own any property. They were thought to be ineligible for military services before the Marian Reforms happened. These reforms were done by Gaius Marius who was a general and a Roman statesman. The proletarian were usually unable to cast votes and even though the women had some rights they were not allowed to vote or enter politics. Later on they gained property and judicial rights but they were still kept from voting and politics.

All the allied citied were given the "Latin Right" which was a status in between being a foreigner and full citizens, so the citizens had rights under the law of Rome and the magistrate who were leading the cities were complete Roman citizens. The Latin Rights varied in many senses and the most common was the division to vote –the sine suffragio could not take part in the politics of Rome and the cum saffragio who could take part in the Roman assembly. Later on Emperor Caracalla granted Roman citizenship to all the free-born men of the Empire in 212.

There were two units in the Roman society – households and families. The households comprised of the head which was the father who was known as the "paterfamilias" translated as the father of the family, wife, children and relatives. The servants and slaves were also considered as a part of the household. The head of the family or the father held the supreme power and controlled the happenings in the household. He could sell his children as slaves, force marriage, claim the property of the dependants for himself and even kill the members of the family as punishment.

After the 1st century the right to kill someone stopped to be implemented in the household. Till the father of the family was alive his son could not claim property. Once a girl was married the household in which she was married would be her new household. This tradition changed later and the girls could continue to recognize their actual families as their’s but the children who were born to her would belong to her husbands’ household. The mother was responsible for raising the children and any unwanted children were sold as slaves. They were not allowed to take part in the family conversations. Latin and Greek were taught to the children by a Greek nurse in the noble families and the boys were taught how to ride and swim.

They could start learning at the age of seven but there were no school buildings so the classes were taken on rooftops. Parchment, paper and papyrus was expensive which is why was boards covered in wax were used for writing. Some even wrote on sands. A group of households who were related were known as family. They usually had the same ancestor or had blood relations at times they were political allies. Marriage was usually a political or an economical alliance especially among the rich class. Once the girls reached the age of 12, their fathers looked for eligible grooms. The girls in the upper class married at a tender age while those belonging to the lower class had their wedding later in 20’s.


Trade and farming were the main constituents of the Roman economy. Earlier Rome bought most food from neighbouring kingdoms but the prices were too high. The Romans started farming themselves and by the 1st century BC, they were harvesting grapes and olives in huge quantities. When Sicily, Tunisia and Egypt were taken there was a thorough supply of grains and wine and olive oil were exported by Italy. The productivity of the farming was low. Mining and quarrying of stones were the only major activities in manufacturing and industrial activities. These stones were main items in construction of buildings.

There existed small factories and some workshops where some workers were employed. There were brick factories too that employed more workers than these small factories. Earlier the Republic used paid labour but wars and battles brought back slaves who were used as free labour. The slaves were used for both skilled and unskilled labour. Once the conquests of Rome stopped the price of the slaves increased. Barter system was used in collecting taxes but Rome had an advanced coinage system and coins were made with bronze, brass and other precious metals. These have been found in excavations within and beyond the boundaries of Rome.

The Roman roads were designed for wheels and transporting goods within the Roman boundaries was done in no time. In the 2nd century trade through the seas and oceans increased. Now more goods could be carried and the cost was less. The Roman market was so modern and flourishing that many economists compare it to the market practices of Netherlands and England in the 17th and 18th century respectively.


There were no schools in early Republic Rome. The boys learnt to read and write from their parents or slaves. These slaves were educated, usually from Greece and were known as "paedagogi". The aim of educating the boys was to make them aware about warfare, agriculture, public affairs and the traditions of Rome. The way of living was learnt by the children as their fathers took them around in the political and religious functions. The sons of the higher class people went to the Senate and learnt about political matters of the nation.

When boys of the nobles reached the age of 16, they were made apprentices to famous political figures. They had to campaign with the army at the age of 17. In the 3rd century BC once the Romans conquered the Hellenistic kingdoms the situation of education became more clear and better. Although there was some Greek influence on the education of the Romans their system of education was entirely different from the Greeks. All families couldn’t afford education but those who could, would send boys and girls to a private school known as "ludus". The teacher was known as "magister ludi" or "litterator", they were mostly of Greek origin. The children would study till the age of 11 where they taught writing, reading and arithmetic.

At the age of 12 the children went to secondary schools where the teachers werea ddressed as "grammaticus", here they were educated on Roman and Greek literature. When they reached the age of 16 they attended the "rhetoric" school where the Greek teacher was known as "rhetor". The career of the students was designed at this phase and the students had to learn the Roman laws. Schools remained closed on market days, religious festivals and they also got summer holidays.


The basic legal practices and laws dated as far as 449 BC and the systemization of the laws was done by Emperor Justinian I in 530 AD. These were followed even in the Byzantine Empire and later on also formed the basis of laws in the Western Europe. The laws were kept, modified but the foundation remained the same and was followed till the 17th century.


The Roman army of 500 BC was highly influenced by the Greek and there were about 9,000 men in the military divided into five classes. The men in the army learnt hoptile tactics which was using spear and shield on the battle grounds against their enemies. Three classes were trained in hoptile skills while the remaining two classes offered light infantry. The early army of Rome was essentially in place to defend their territory. The Romans then adopted the "maniples" formation instead of hoptile. These men fought in groups and were considered to be very close. Every group had men ranging from 60 to 120 and following them were the legion of men which numbered to 5,000.
Ancient Rome History
The Roman army

The manipular basically had three lines the front were young men and the last line were more experienced. The three lines were – hastate, principes and triarii in the front, light infantry or the velites in the middle and the cavalry or equites last. It was an aggressive posture. Pompey had the strongest and biggest army as they were all newly recruited. People who owned property and were citizens in the Republic were usually the part of the army and they had their own weapons if they were equities and had their own horses.

On an average a rural farmer would have served in six to seven war campaigns if he survived. The urban citizens, freedmen and slaves did not participate in the war except if there was an emergency which hardly happened. Although the criterion of enlisting was high it was brought down at thetime of Gaius Marius because the need to men in the army was increasing. The term of service of the army was 20 years and sometimes it was extended for an additional 6 or 7 years.

In the beginning of the 3rd century BC the men in the army or the legionaries were paid and at the time of Caesar it was double. If there were successful campaigns they would get what was collected from the loot. They were also allotted land when they retired at the time of Marius. The legionaries had now become professional and were paid well. They also received a fixed amount when they retired. Augustus evolved the army of the Roman Empire and the legionary troops now functioned as team of units more than full legions. A unit which was made of legionaries and cavalry fortified the outposts and they could even fight alone as a unit or combine more of such units. This tactic was quite successful and the Roman forces endured for a long time.

Emperor Gallienus was the last to reorganize the Roman army in during the period of Roman Empire. Besides the cavalry and the infantry there also was a group of barbarians who fought in the battle. They were known as "foederati" and were recruited from friendly tribes. They were recognized as a permanent troop in the Roman Empire. Although there was a Roman general who led them they were controlled by an officer who was one of their own. When Rome was under Monarchy the hoplite soldiers were led directly by the ruling king. In the later parts of the Republic members of the Senate had to serve in the army where they were deputies to the field commanders and after which he would be a "praetor" the powers of which can be compared with the powers that a present military commander has.

Once the term as a "praetor" would end he would be appointed as a "proconsul" to take care of a foreign province. When Augustus was in rule the military was placed under unitary command. While the emperor was the commander of every legion he commanded them through the ‘legatus’ who was appointed from the elites in the Senate. In a province which just had a single legion the legate would command them and also act as the provincial governor there. In a province which just had a single legion the legate would command them and also act as the provincial governor there. In a province where there was more than single legion there was legate for each one and all the legates were answerable to the provincial governor who was a legate but of a high rank.

In the beginning of Diocletian this structure was dissolved and all the legates or the provincial governors were removed and command of the armies in a group of provinces was handed over to generals who were referred to as the "duces" were appointed by the Emperor. The duces did not belong to the Senate or the elite families but were people who earned higher ranks while serving in the army. However, there were many situations when these men tried to overthrow the emperor and take over control of the throne. Chaos and unrest became a continuous affair and internal wars left their internal system weak and prone to barbaric attacks from the neighbouring tribes.

Rome had a fleet of 20 ships in the 3rd century which were commanded by officers known as "duumviri navales" and were used for fighting the pirates. The fleets were replaced by allied forces in 278 AD. The allied forces were used at the time of the First Punic War when Rome needed big fleets. The oared warships known as the "quinquereme" was the main ship and continued to dominate the seas till Caesar Augustus changed them and put navigable vessels in the sea. The "navarch" commanded the ships and the post was usually not held by the Romans. This is why they were considered as non-Roman and when Rome was not in war the naval was not taken care of.

By 350 AD Rome had many merchant and war ships. Aquilea, Rhodes and Alexandria in the east, Ravenna, Misenum, mouth of Somme River in west and Arles were both ports and base for the Roman navy. River harbours along the Danube and Rhine were fortified. Important generals commanded both the armies and the naval which shows that the navy was considered to be a part of the army and not a sovereign service.

Cultures of Ancient Rome

The painting styles of the Romans show the influence of Greek culture and they can be seen on the frescoes which were used to decorate the ceilings and walls of the villas in the country. There are many painting which have been excavated at Pompeii and based on these the art historians split the entire history of Rome in four periods. The first style of Roman painting goes back to 2nd century BC. It has been mainly made of imitations of masonry and marble, some of them portray mythological characters too.

In the 1st century BC the second style of painting was discovered where the paintings show 3D sceneries and architectural features. The third style of painting belonged to the reign of Augustus between 24BC – 14 AD. The paintings had ornamentation style more than real. A monochrome background was used and in the centre a small scenery or abstract design was painted. Portrait sculptures were famous and later were used with bearding and ornate hair with cutting ad drilling became popular.

The Romans were influenced by the Greek and this effect was seen in their literature also. The earliest of Roman works include historical epics which tell the story of the soldiers and their conquests. Soon authors wrote poetry, tragedy, history and comedy. Again taken much from the Greek music the Romans used different musical instruments in different areas. The "lituus" and "bucina" was used in ceremonies and the "cornu" or "tuba" was used to give commands in the army. Religious rituals also had many musical performances using the cymbals and tambourines atorgiastic cults, tibiae at sacrificial rituals, hymns and rattles through the spectrum. All public ceremonies had music.

Writings and drawings on the walls known as graffiti, paintings, brothels and sculptures which have been found in Herculaneum and Pompeii reveal that they had a sex saturated culture.


Latin was the language of the Romans. Although it was the native and the main language of the Romans, Greek also was spoken by the many high class families. This was because most of the educated people studies literature which was written in Greek. In fact the eastern part of Roman Empire always used Greek and Latin never replaced it. Once Justinian died Greek was made the official language in Byzantine. As Rome expanded Latin spread through Europe and it evolved into more dialects based on the different locations which slowly evolved into well-known Romance languages.


There were many types of athletic activities in which the young Roman boys indulged such as wrestling, jumping, racing and boxing. Those who were rich and lived in the country side enjoyed games like hunting and fishing. The Romans also played many board games and gambled also. Public games were also enjoyed and for which special Coliseum was built here the gladiators combated and many times men faced dangerous animals also.

The foundations of Rome were laid on mythological events but the civilizationemerged as one of the biggest and most influential kingdoms in the world. They dominated and ruled, thirst for power led to dirty politics and thus division of this powerful kingdom took place. The Romans are considered to have one of most modern civilizations. Art, literature, buildings, technology, science, culture and traditions they have left back a rich history to be studied and enjoyed by the present people.

Rome continues to have some of the world’s most majestic sites. It is presently the capital of Italy, although there is bloody trail in its history this splendid country stands tall situated on the banks of River Tiber, the Romans still boast of their splendid palaces, fountains, museums and churches and is one of the most visited places in Europe.
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General History